BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes Chemical Synapse 2-Sep 29

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes -neurotransmitters can be classified based on chemical composition -amines, amino acids, and acetylcholine are types of neurotransmitters -dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are types of amine neurotransmitters as well as serotonin -amino acid neurotransmitters are glutamate and GABA -acetylcholine is derived from choline and acetyl-CoA -in reuptake, tyrosine is converted into a neurotransmitter by a series of enzymes -DOPA is the precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline -enzymes of the presynaptic terminal determine which neurotransmitters are made -in reuptake, neurotransmitters are taken back up by active transport -excess neurotransmitter is catabolyzed by enzymes in the pre-synaptic terminal -neurotransmitter is broken down in the synaptic cleft after binding to the receptor -glutamine J alpha ketoglutarate J glutamate or GABA -trytophan J serotonin -at low concentrations, there is a linear relationship between neurotransmitter concentration and percent neurotransmitter bound to receptors -at high concentrations, receptors become saturated with neurotransmitter -maximum neurotransmitter bound to receptors is referred to as the maximum downstream effect that the neurotransmitter can cause -receptor subtypes are defined by the endogenous ligand that binds to it -adrenergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with alpha and beta receptor subtypes -dopamine
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