BGYB30H3 Lecture 13 Notes Autonomic and Somatic Control-Oct 22

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

BGYB30H3 Lecture 13 Notes -the pinna and ear canal direct sound into the ear -sound waves hit the tympanic membrane (ear drum) -malceus, incus, and stapes are bones in the middle ear that amplify the sound waves and conduct them -stapes connects to the oval window of the inner ear -inner ear is filled with fluid and contains the cochlea, vestibular apparatus, and semicircular canals -cochlea is used in perception of sounds -vestibular apparatus and semicircular canals are used for equilibrium -the higher the pitch, the higher the frequency -the larger the amplitude, the louder the sound -sound wave first hits eardrum and turns into a vibration -vibration travels through middle ear where it can be amplified -vibration is converted into fluid waves at oval window -fluid wave pushes on the tectoral membrane of cochlear duct where hair cells are found -when hair cells are activated, neurotransmitter is released on sensory neurons -action potentials are transmitted along cochlear nerve to the thalamus -cochlea contains fluid called perilymph, which is similar to extracellular fluid -cochlear duct contains endolymph fluid, which is similar to intracellular fluid -cochlea contains vestibular, tympanic, and cochlear duct -cochlear duct is found between the tectoral and basilar membrane -organ of corti contains hair cells that bend when tectoral membrane bends -fluid waves bend the hair cells -fluid waves p
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