BGYB30H3 Lecture 16 Notes Muscles 2-Nov 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

BGYB30H3 Lecture 16 Notes -skeletal muscles attach to bones by tendons and function by positioning and moving the skeleton -somatic motor neurons cause contraction of skeletal muscles -ZlooKZ oZ L[KlZ]}L }L ]}LZ LL[K}oZ}K}LZ -smooth muscles are muscles of internal organs that influence movement of materials around, in and out of the body -primary extrinsic control of smooth muscles originates from autonomic nervous system -some smooth muscles can contract spontaneously and can be modulated by hormones -cardiac muscle is only found in the heart and pumps blood around the body -cardiac muscles can contract and relax spontaneously -primary extrinsic control of cardiac muscles also arises from the ANS -cardiac and skeletal muscles have striations only -muscles have many nuclei and mitochondria -origin of skeletal muscles is the point connected to the bone that is most stationary and closest to the trunk -insertion is the point of the muscle-bone attachment that is most mobile and distant from the trunk -flexor muscles bring bones closer together (e.g. biceps) -extensor muscles bring bones farther apart (e.g. triceps) -antagonistic muscle groups have opposite effects on one another (e.g. when bicep relaxes, triceps
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