Textbook notes-Chapter 1

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Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 1- Introduction to Physiology Introduction N Physiology- the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical ,35K8L.,O574.08808OL907,OO20,38N34ZO0J0413,9:70 N Aristotle used the word in this broad sense to describe the functioning of all living organisms, not just the human body N +L554.7,908 .438L0709K01,9K074120L.L30 :809K0Z479420,39K0K0,OL3J54Z07413,9:70,39K070,19079K0 field became closely associated w medicine N Anatomy- the study of structure, w much less emphasis on function N Anatomy and physiology cannot be separated as the function of a tissue or organ is closely tied to its structure, and the structure of the tissue or organ presumably evolved to provide an efficient physical base for its function Physiological Systems N Fig. 1-1 (pg. 2) shows the different levels of organization of living organisms N One distinguishing feature of physiology is that it encompasses many levels of organization, from the molecular level all the way up to populations of a species N The smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes is the cell which are collections of molecules separated from the external environment by a barrier called the cell or plasma membrane N Tissues- collections of cells that carry out related functions; form structural and functional units known as organs and groups of organs integrate their functions to create organ systems Table 1-1 Organ Systems of the Human Body (pg.4) System Name Organs or Tissues Representative Functions Circulatory Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport of materials bw all cells of body Digestive Stomach, intestines, liver, Conversion of food into particles that can be pancreas transported into the body; elimination of some wastes Endocrine Thyroid gland, adrenal gland Coordination of body function through synthesis and release of regulatory molecules Immune Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes Defense against foreign inva
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