Textbook notes-Chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 7 Hormones N Hormones are chemical messengers secreted into the blood by specialized cells and are responsible for many long term functions of the body N Hormones act on their target cells by -controlling rates of enzymatic reactions -controlling the transport of ions or molecules across cell membranes -controlling gene expression and synthesis of proteins What Makes a Chemical a Hormone N Hormones exert their effect at very low concentrations and are transported to distant targets in the blood Hormones are Secreted by a Cell or Group of Cells N Hormones are secreted by endocrine glands, which are derived from epithelial tissue N Molecules that acts as hormones (neurohormones, cytokines) are secreted by classic and isolated endocrine glands Hormones are Secreted into the Blood N Pheromones are specialized ectohormones that act on other organisms of the same species to elicit a physiological or behavioural response N Hormones are usually secreted into the blood Hormones are Transported to Distant Targets N Growth factors are substances that influence cell growth and division but are usually autocrines and paracrine N Hormones usually travel to distant targets Hormones Exert their Effect at Very Low Concentrations N One hallmark of a hormone is its ability to act at low concentrations N Chemical signals such as histamine that are transported into blood at high concentrations are not hormones Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors N All hormones bind to target receptors and causes a biochemical response Hormone Action Must Be Terminated N Hormones in the bloodstream are degraded by enzymes found primarily in the liver and kidneys N The metabolites of hormones are excreted in urine www.notesolution.com
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