Textbook notes-Chapter 23-The Hypothalamic-Pituitary Control System

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Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 23 The Hypothalamic-Pituitary control system -Several hormones are controlled by hypothalamic and anterior pituitary trophic hormones Feedback patterns -the negative feedback signal for simple endocrine pathways is the systemic response to the hormone Hormone receptors -hormone receptors may be on the cell surface or inside the cell Cellular responses -in general hormone target cells respond by altering existing proteins or by making new proteins -the historical distinctions between the actions of peptide and steroid hormones are no longer valid (some steroid hormones have receptors on the cell surface) Magnitude of target cells response -the amount of active hormone available to the cell and the numberactivity of target cell receptors determine the magnitude of target cell response Endocrine Pathologies -endocrine pathologies result from N excess hormone secretion N inadequate hormone secretion N abnormal target cell response N failure of target cell response ADRENAL GLUCOCORTICOIDS N Adrenal medulla occupies over a quarter of the inner mass while adrenal cortex occupies three quarters of the gland and secretes steroid hormones The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones -The three major types of steroid hormones secreted are N Mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone, which effects sodium and potassium) N Glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) N Sex Hormones -All steroid hormones begin with cholesterol, which is modified by multiple enzymes to end up as aldosterone, glucocorticoids or sex steroids (androgens or estrogensprogesterone) -The pathways are the same in the adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta; what differs is the enzyme distribution www.notesolution.com
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