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ch 19

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Xiao- An Zhang

Ch 19- December 1 , 2010 3- Ernest Rutherford 1908 - Positron- similar to an electron but instead has a positive charged electron 5- pieces of lead with different thicknesses - Alpha cannot penetrate even 0.01mm lead. The beta ray penetrates the 0.01 mm but not the 0.1mm. the gamma ray penetrates even the 100mm. 6- sometimes can damage the cell and if you can somehow kill the damaged cells (cancer) 8- the same element have the same amount of protons or atomic number - The nucleus of a isotope is called a nuclide 12- transmutation- changing one element into another element= in order for this to happen, the number of PROTONS has to change 14- the parent and daughter nuclide have the same atomic and mass number rd Ch19- December 3 , 2010 Review - MO of HF: Nonbonding Orbital - Polyatomic Molecules: O3 and C6H6 - Radioactivity: Ionizing, penetrating, High Energy and Induce Phosphorescence - Facts about the nucleus: Nuclear and Atomic Symbols Mass number (A) Element (X) Atomic number (Z) - Nuclear Equations: Atomic and Mass number Conservation - Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Positron Emission and Electron Capture - Nuclear Equation with Particle Changes 26-29- Write the nuclear equation for positron emission from K-40 - IMPORTANT FOR EXAM SELF STUDY- slide 30-39 40- Kinetics of Radioactive Decay - First Order Kinetic Rate Laws (temperature independent) Rate= deltaN/deltat = kN (see ch13, chemical kinetics) N= number of radioactive nuclei Different rate for each radioactive “isotope” - Each radionuclide had a particular length of time it required to lose half its radioactivity o A constant half life t ½= 0.693/k 49- 14C14N + -1e 50- only use c-14 until 50 000 years because the half life and because of experimental error 54- Fission: for very unstable nuclei, the nucleus can split into 2 smaller nuclei - Fusion: 2 small nuclei come together to form a larger nucleus 56- you have to have a certain amount of reactant to get started this is called the critical mass Chapter 19- December 6, 2010 Review - Kinetics of Radioactive Decay: First Order Rate Law - Half-Life: t1/2 - Radiometric Dating; Radiocarbon Dating - Fission and Fusion - Fission Chain Reaction - Energy Source of Fission Reaction - Nuclear Power - Nuclear Fusion - Artificial Transmutation: Making New Elements - Linear Accelerator and Cyclotron Self Study - Slides 71-79 - Practice on nuclear equation and biological effects of Radiation Medical Uses of Radioisotopes, treatment- radiotherapy (p80) - Dna can easily be attacked by radiation Diagnosis: - You can take a picture and know how much , where it comes from and how radioactive it is - Table 19.6- common radiotracers Medical Uses of Radioisotopes, Diagnosis - FDG: fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) Final EXAM - 180 mins - 50 MC - Only APPROVED CALCULATORs HW216 REVIEW CH9 – chemical bonding 1 -lewis theory CH10 – chemical boding 2 Molecular shape (VSPR), valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory Chapter 9 - Why do atoms bonds and types of chamical bonds - Lewis
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