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Chapter 10

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Xiao- An Zhang

Chapter 10 – November 22, 2010 Review - Molecular geometry: Different number of Electron groups with different number of lone pairs (table 10.1, pg 408 :13 possibilities) - Predicting the shapes around central Atoms: 1 Lewis structures; 2. # of e-groups; 3. # of lone pairs; 4. Table 10.1 - Representing 3DShapes on a 2D Surface - 1. Define the plane, 2. Straight line, 3. Solid wedge and hashed wedge - Molecular Geometry of Multiple Center Atoms Slide 62: Molecular Polarity 63- Molecular polarity 64- Vector Addition - From tail to tail - If more than 2 then first add a and b, find the resultant, then add or subtract the resultant from c 65- Vector addition - MEMORIZE THIS CHART 68- Predicting Polarity of Molecules 74- Molecular polarity affects solubility in water - Intermolecular forces of attraction are stronger 75- Problems with Lewis Theory - Oxygen is paramagnetic because of its unpaired electrons 76- Valence Bond Theory 82- Hybridization - The same type of atom can form different types of hybridization 83- Hybrid orbitals - Usually hydrogen can only form 1 bond Chemistry Chapter 10- November 24 Slide 85- sp3 hybridization - H can only form s hybridization - Use wave function to mathematically find out how to get the hybridizations of the orbitals - 86- Sp3 is tetrahedral from vespr - 87- After hybridization you get FOUR sp3 hybrid orbitals - 88-What is different between the C and N- energy, angle, - 89- oxygen can form 2 single bonds – this is shown in the hybridization because oxygen has 2 lone electrons - 93- sigma bonds has overlap - Pi bond is when orbitals are parallel to each other - Sigma bond is stronger and has higher bond energy than pi bond - SEE SLIDE 94 - 98- usually sp3 for atoms with 3 electron groups around it - 99- sp2 comes from 1 s and 2 p’s - 102- only carbon goes through hybridization not oxygen - ****103- Double bond is the addition of one sigma bond plus one pi bond **** - 104- sigma bond is easy to rotate; pi bond is very difficult to rotate - 106- pi bond = cis and trans - 107- sp hybridization – linear - We have2 p orbitals left over Chapter 10- November 26, 2010 - The more bonds that can be formed the more stable the structure - Review - Sp3 hybridization: 4e-groups, Formation, and Orbital diagrams - Types of Bonds: Sigma bond and pi bond - Sp2 Hybridization: 3 e-groups, Formation, and Orbital diagrams - Bond Rotation - Sp
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