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ch23. Metals and Metallurgy.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Shadi Dalili

23 Metals and Metallurgy231 Vanadium A Problem and an OpportunityoA rare element making up only about 0015 of Earths crust by massoSoft white metaloHigh ductility and malleabilityoHighly reactiveoccurs naturally within compoundsoFound in oiloRecovery of vanadium from oil involves metallurgyincludes all the processes associated with mining separating and refining metals and the subsequent production of pure metals and mixtures of metals called alloys232 The General Properties and Natural Distribution of MetalsoAll metals are opaque good conductors of heat and electricity generally highly malleable and ductileoEach metal atom within a metal sample donates one or more electrons to an electron sea which then flows within the metaloAtomic orbitals of the metal atoms are combined forming bands that are delocalized over the entire crystalline solid electrons move freely within these bandsoOnly nickel copper palladium silver platinum and gold exist naturally as elements often called noble metalsoRest of metals occur naturally in positive oxidation states within mineral depositsoMinerals are homogeneous naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solidsoA rock that contains a high concentration of a specific mineral is called an oreoMetallurgy separate useful minerals from nonuseful materials in the oreoMain sources of alkali metals are chloride minerals233 Metallurgical ProcessesoMined ores are first separated into their metalcontaining and nonmetalcontaining compoundsoElemental metal is extracted from its compounds through extractive metallurgyoAfter separation and extraction the metal is refined crudematerial is purifiedSeparation1Crush ore into smaller particles2particles that contain the minerals are separated from gangue undesirable material usually by physical methods ex wind magnetic forces1
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