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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ann Verner

Unit 7 - Quantum mechanical theory of the atom - Model that explains how electrons exist in atoms - Nature of Light - Wave particle theory - Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) - Energy from oscillating electric and magnetic field - Wave composed of oscillating mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields propagating through space (page. 278) - - Electric field- region of space where electrically charged particles experience a force (2 protons together feel a force when close together) - Magnetic field, region of space where magnetic particles experience a force (2 magnets brought together will feel a force) - characterize waves by amplitude (vertical heightcrest) and wavelength (distance between adjacent crest), both are related to quantity of energy carried by wave, frequency (number of cycles that pass through a stationary point in a given time, Hz (1 cycles)) * v cycle = - Longest wavelength (750 nm, Red), shortest wavelength (400 nm, violet) - Electromagnetic Spectrum - Index of all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation - Short wavelength has more energy than long wavelengths of EMR - Shortest to lonest wavelength of EMR is gamma rays, X-rays, UV radiation, Visible light, Infrared radiation, microwaves Interference and Diffraction - Interference- waves in reacting with each other can cause - Constructive- waves that align and overlap (in phase) - Destructive- crest from one source overlaps with the trough (out of phase) - Diffraction- obstacleslit, waves behind or diffract around it - Each slit acts as a new source Particle Nature of Light - Photoelectric effect- observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them - light energy comes in packets * , h= plancks constant, - packet of lights is called a photon or a quantum of light * * Threshold frequency condition, - low frequency light does not eject electron because no single photon has minimum energy to dislodge electron * , difference between energy of photon and binding energy - wave- particle duality of light -light appears to behave like a wave and particle Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model - atomic spectroscopy- study of the EMR absorber and emitted by atoms - when atoms absorbs energy, it often reemits that energy as light - emission spectrum- single element emits certain colours organized in bright line Electrons Wave Nature - De Brogile Wavelength - wavelength related to KE, faster electron moving= shorter wavelength * , de Broglie relation - Uncertainty Principle - Unable to simultaneously observe both the wave nature and the particle nature of the electron - when trying to observe which hole the electron goes through (particle nature) you lose interference pattern (wave nature) - electrons particle and wave nature are complementary properties, (exclude one another) - Heisenbergs uncertainty principle - cannot simultaneously measure velocity and position of an electron - The more accurately you know the position of an electron the less accurately (smaller x) you know its velocity(v) and vice versa
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