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Lecture 7

CHMB16Fall2012 Lecture 7 Notes.docx

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Kagan Kerman

CHMB16Fall2012 Lecture 7: Sample Preparation Techniques and Titrations Liquid Extraction Techniques o Microwave assisted extraction o Super Critical Fluid Extraction o o once it is a superficial fluid, you can dissolve anything with carbon dioxide and then it is easier to perform the extraction o solid carbon dioxide is in EQ with carbon dioxiode gas at a temperature of -78.7 degrees C and a pressure of 1 bar o the solid sublimes without turning into liquid  solid – gas straight o above the triple point at -56.6 degrees C liquid and vapour coexist as separate phases o critical point is reached at 31.3 degrees and 73.9 bar where only one phase exists, no matter what the pressure  this phase is called the supercritical fluid o its densitiy and viscosity are between liquid and gas, and so is its ability to act as a solvent o o there are a lot of peaks because there are a lot of substances dissolved in the supercritical fluid  there could be thousands of compounds dissolved in the supercritical fluid  the analyst’s job is to clean this up and separate the components 1 Liquid Phase Extraction o 57" Solid Phase Extraction o o the desred analyte is in a matrix (i.e with other compounds) Titrations o a titration involves the addition of a reagent solutions (titrant) to a solution of an analyte until the analyte has reacted completely o for a reaction to be analyzed by titration, its reaction with the reagent must be thermodynamically favoured (large K) and kinetically favoured (fast) o common types of titration reactions are: acid-base, oxidation-reduction, complex formation and precipitation titrations Methods of titration o there are 3 ways titration can be carried out o direct titration: titrant is added to the analyte solution until the reaction between them is complete o back titration: involves addition of an excess of a reactant to an analyte  excess re
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