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Lecture

CHMB16Fall2012 Lecture 1 Notes.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMB16H3
Professor
Kagan Kerman

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CHMB16Fall2012 Lecture 1: Introduction to Analytical Chemistry (Chapter 0) Definitions o Qualitative analysis – figuring out what is in your sample o Quantitative analysis – figuring out amount of x in your sample o Analyte = targeted molecule General steps in chemical analysis Selecting a method o When selecting a method of research of the analyte, factors such as time, efficiency and cost must be taken into consideration Obtaining the sample o There are 2 types of samples: heterogeneous and homogeneous (pure) o Separation techniques must be performed on heterogenous samples in order to obtain the analyte Processing the sample o Must prepare lab sample o Define replicate o Prepare solutions : physical and chemical changes o All measurements must be done at least 3 times in order for statistics to be accurate  the more measurements done, the more accurate the result Eliminating the interferences o The matrix o Calibrating and measuring concentration o Calculating results o Evaluating results by estimating their reliability (statistics) Classifying chemicals o Reagent grade(minimum standards set by ACS) o CHAPTER 00: Unnumbered Figure 0-3set by NIST) o Special purpose reagent chemicals (Sigma-Aldrich, EMD chemicals, etc) Example: how much caffeine is in chocolate? o o In chocolate there is caffeine and theobromine which is very structurally similar to caffeine o First, pestle and mortar is used to grind up the chocolate 13! 1 CHAPTER 00: Figure 0-8 Dissolve the chocolate CHAPTER 00: Figure 0-9 o centrifugation used to extract fat from chocolate to leave solid residue for analysis (fat free)  caffeine and theobromine are insoluble in petroleum ether, so upon centrifugation they will settle at the bottom of the tube o quantitative transfer of the residue to an Erlenmeyer flask was then done and the residues were dissolved in water 15! CHAPTER 00: Figure 0-10 o o centrifugation and filtration are used to separate the undesired solid residue from the aqueous solution of analytes ODS: octadesylsilane CH3(CH2)16CH2SiCl3
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