A genetically transmitted diathesis may be necessary for some disorders, but it is embedded in a
network of other factors that also play a part.
THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PARADIGM:
biopsychosocial paradigm: biological, psychological, and social factors are conceptualized as different
levels of analysis or subsystems within the paradigm. FIGURE 2.9
The actual variables and the degree of influence of the variables from the different domains typically
differ from disorder to disorder.
Protection from risk factors, or the ability to bounce back in the face of adversity, is referred to as
Protective factors can occur within the individual (eg, perseverance and courage in a child who suffers
poverty; the ability to think and act independently in an adolescent whose parent is diagnosed with a
psychiatric disorder) but can also reside in the environment (e.g, a close relationship with one parent,
support from a caring teacher).
TABLE 2.2 p.65, 2.3.
A history of maltreatment in childhood is acknowledged as a consistent and strong predictor of
subsequent emotional difficulties.
A provocative study of maltreatment and subsequent aggression found that maltreated and
subsequent aggression found that maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of
monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) were substantially less likely to display anti-social behaviour as adults.
This is a classic example of a gene-environment interaction.
Psychosocial factors: Socio-economic status And Poverty:
extreme poverty and low socio-economic status (SES) confer risk for increased rates of mental illness.
This is a tricky issue to some extent because profound mental illness