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CHMB20H3 (13)


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Maydianne Andrade

A genetically transmitted diathesis may be necessary for some disorders, but it is embedded in a network of other factors that also play a part. THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PARADIGM: biopsychosocial paradigm: biological, psychological, and social factors are conceptualized as different levels of analysis or subsystems within the paradigm. FIGURE 2.9 The actual variables and the degree of influence of the variables from the different domains typically differ from disorder to disorder. Protection from risk factors, or the ability to bounce back in the face of adversity, is referred to as resilience. Protective factors can occur within the individual (eg, perseverance and courage in a child who suffers poverty; the ability to think and act independently in an adolescent whose parent is diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder) but can also reside in the environment (e.g, a close relationship with one parent, support from a caring teacher). TABLE 2.2 p.65, 2.3. A history of maltreatment in childhood is acknowledged as a consistent and strong predictor of subsequent emotional difficulties. A provocative study of maltreatment and subsequent aggression found that maltreated and subsequent aggression found that maltreated children with a genotype conferring high levels of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) were substantially less likely to display anti-social behaviour as adults. This is a classic example of a gene-environment interaction. Psychosocial factors: Socio-economic status And Poverty: extreme poverty and low socio-economic status (SES) confer risk for increased rates of mental illness. This is a tricky issue to some extent because profound mental illness
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