Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Chemistry (600)
CHMA10H3 (200)
Lecture

last lecture


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Jamie Donaldson

Page:
of 4
The Final Exam
December 13 (Monday)
9:00 – 12:00
Cumulative (covers everything!!)
Worth 50% of total mark
Multiple choice
The Final Exam
From my portion, you are responsible for:
Chapter 8 … material from my lecture notes
Chapter 9 … everything
Chapter 10 … everything
Chapter 11 … everything
Chapter 12 … everything except 12.7
The Final Exam
You will need to remember
Relationship between photon energy and frequency / wavelength
De Broglie AND Heisenberg relationships
Equations for energies of a particle-in-a-box AND of the hydrogen
atom
VSEPR shapes AND hybribizations which give them
My office hours next week
Wednesday Dec 8: 10-12 AND 2-4
Friday Dec 10: 10-12 AND 2-4
SPECTROSCOPY
SPECTROSCOPY
We will describe atoms and molecules using wavefunctions, which
we will give symbols … like this: Y
These wavefunctions contain all the information about the item
we are trying to understand
Since they are waves, they will have wave properties: amplitude,
frequency, wavelength, phase, etc.
We obtain the energy by performing the “energy operation” on
the wavefunction – the result is a constant (the energy) times the
wavefunction
HY = EY
This equation is called the Schrodinger wave equation (SWE)
Let’s see how this might work
So H = KE operator + PE operator
H =
HY = EY
PARTICLE IN A BOX
What does Y Mean?????
PARTICLE IN A BOX
ENERGY OF A PARTICLE IN A BOX
The result of solving the Schrodinger equation this way is that we
can split the hydrogen wavefunction into two:
Y(x,y,z) à Y(r,q,j) = R(r) x Y(q,j)
The solutions have the same features we have seen already:
Energy is quantized
En = - R Z2 / n2
= - 2.178 x 10-18 Z2 / n2 J [ n = 1,2,3 …]
Wavefunctions have shapes which depend on the quantum
numbers
There are (n-1) nodes in the wavefunctions
Because we have 3 spatial dimensions, we end up with 3
quantum numbers:
n, l, ml
n = 1,2,3, …; l = 0,1,2 … (n-1); ml = -l, -l+1, …0…l-1, l
n is the principal quantum number – gives energy and level
l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number – it
gives the shape of the wavefunction
ml is the magnetic quantum number – it distinguishes the
various degenerate wavefunctions with the same n and l
The result (after a lot of math!)
A more interesting way to look at things is by using the radial
probability distribution, which gives probabilities of finding the
electron within an annulus at distance r (think of onion skins)
The Radial Probability Distribution for the 3s, 3p, and 3d Orbitals
Another quantum number!
TRENDS IN EA
TRENDS IN FIRST IE
TRENDS IN FIRST IE
COMBINING ORBITALS TO FORM HYBRIDS
LACTIC ACID
THE MO’s FORMED BY TWO 1s ORBITALS