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CHMA10H3 (200)

Jamie Donaldson (6)

Lecture

Department

ChemistryCourse Code

CHMA10H3Professor

Jamie DonaldsonThe Final Exam

December 13 (Monday)

9:00 – 12:00

Cumulative (covers everything!!)

Worth 50% of total mark

Multiple choice

The Final Exam

From my portion, you are responsible for:

Chapter 8 … material from my lecture notes

Chapter 9 … everything

Chapter 10 … everything

Chapter 11 … everything

Chapter 12 … everything except 12.7

The Final Exam

You will need to remember

Relationship between photon energy and frequency / wavelength

De Broglie AND Heisenberg relationships

Equations for energies of a particle-in-a-box AND of the hydrogen

atom

VSEPR shapes AND hybribizations which give them

My office hours next week

Wednesday Dec 8: 10-12 AND 2-4

Friday Dec 10: 10-12 AND 2-4

SPECTROSCOPY

SPECTROSCOPY

We will describe atoms and molecules using wavefunctions, which

we will give symbols … like this: Y

These wavefunctions contain all the information about the item

we are trying to understand

Since they are waves, they will have wave properties: amplitude,

frequency, wavelength, phase, etc.

We obtain the energy by performing the “energy operation” on

the wavefunction – the result is a constant (the energy) times the

wavefunction

HY = EY

This equation is called the Schrodinger wave equation (SWE)

Let’s see how this might work

So H = KE operator + PE operator

H =

HY = EY

PARTICLE IN A BOX

What does Y Mean?????

PARTICLE IN A BOX

ENERGY OF A PARTICLE IN A BOX

The result of solving the Schrodinger equation this way is that we

can split the hydrogen wavefunction into two:

Y(x,y,z) à Y(r,q,j) = R(r) x Y(q,j)

The solutions have the same features we have seen already:

Energy is quantized

En = - R Z2 / n2

= - 2.178 x 10-18 Z2 / n2 J [ n = 1,2,3 …]

Wavefunctions have shapes which depend on the quantum

numbers

There are (n-1) nodes in the wavefunctions

Because we have 3 spatial dimensions, we end up with 3

quantum numbers:

n, l, ml

n = 1,2,3, …; l = 0,1,2 … (n-1); ml = -l, -l+1, …0…l-1, l

n is the principal quantum number – gives energy and level

l is the orbital angular momentum quantum number – it

gives the shape of the wavefunction

ml is the magnetic quantum number – it distinguishes the

various degenerate wavefunctions with the same n and l

The result (after a lot of math!)

A more interesting way to look at things is by using the radial

probability distribution, which gives probabilities of finding the

electron within an annulus at distance r (think of onion skins)

The Radial Probability Distribution for the 3s, 3p, and 3d Orbitals

Another quantum number!

TRENDS IN EA

TRENDS IN FIRST IE

TRENDS IN FIRST IE

COMBINING ORBITALS TO FORM HYBRIDS

LACTIC ACID

THE MO’s FORMED BY TWO 1s ORBITALS

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###### Document Summary

Chapter 8 material from my lecture notes. Relationship between photon energy and frequency / wavelength. Equations for energies of a particle-in-a-box and of the hydrogen atom. We will describe atoms and molecules using wavefunctions, which we will give symbols like this: y. These wavefunctions contain all the information about the item we are trying to understand. Since they are waves, they will have wave properties: amplitude, frequency, wavelength, phase, etc. We obtain the energy by performing the energy operation on the wavefunction the result is a constant (the energy) times the wavefunction. This equation is called the schrodinger wave equation (swe) So h = ke operator + pe operator. The result of solving the schrodinger equation this way is that we can split the hydrogen wavefunction into two: The solutions have the same features we have seen already: = - 2. 178 x 10-18 z2 / n2 j [ n = 1,2,3 ]

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