CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 37: Vsepr Theory, Electron Density

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CHMA10 Lecture 34: Hybridization
- Hybridizing: process of mixing different types of orbitals in the valence shell to make
new degenerate orbitals
o 3 main types of degenerate orbitals can be formed
1: SP3 orbitals
2: SP2 orbitals
3: SP orbitals
o We classify these degenerate orbitals by how many P orbitals are interacting
with S orbitals
o This process occurs to stabilize the molecule
Hybridization yield the lowest overall energy for the molecule, something
that stabilizes it considerably
o Eg: Looking at the SP3 hybridization of Carbon
We go from one fully filled 2s orbital and one partially filled 2p orbital to
four hybrid SP3 orbitals
End up with four degenerate orbitals with four unpaired electrons
spread out across each of them
o These hybrid orbitals are formed by the mixing one s
orbital with three p orbitals
Resulting hybrid structure has more energy than the 2s orbital
alone and less energy than the 2p orbital on its own
Orbital is said to have 25% s orbital character and 75% p orbital
Shape of the SP3 orbital
Looks like an asymmetric infinity sign or simply a sideways 8 with
one lobe bigger than the other
The orbital lies on the X,Y or Z axis
Can be distinguished by its big lobe and small lobe
o Major Lobe: the larger lobe
Region has a higher probability of finding electrons
than the smaller minor lobe
Also this is the region where the actual overlap
with the other molecule takes place
o Further describing the SP3 orbital
Atoms with four electron groups are referred to as being tetrahedral
shaped according to VSEPR theory
Bond Angle = 109.5 degrees
Atoms will use hybrid orbitals for all bond pairs and lone pairs
Anytime atoms in a bond form a tetrahedral shape, there are SP3
bonds involved
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