CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 38: Trigonal Planar Molecular Geometry, Sigma Bond, Molecular Geometry

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CHMA10 Lecture 35: SP2 Obitals
- Ethene is one of the most common molecules that features SP2 orbitals
o Ethene is a molecule that features a double bond, one of the main distinguishing
characteristics of the SP2 orbital
Pi bonds are always present and will form when there are double bonds
present
These bonds require two P orbitals to be left alone in order to form the
bond
Therefore by this process, the SP3 orbital becomes SP2
To make the other 3 sigma bonds
We need to hybridize one S orbital and 2 P orbitals from each
carbon
o Form the SP2 hybridizes orbitals
o Instead of having four SP3 orbitals, instead we have three
SP2 orbitals
- Characteristics of the SP2 orbital
o Composition
Composed of 1 S orbital combined with 2 P orbitals
Therefore SP2 orbitals have 33% S orbital character and 66% P
orbital character
Bonds feature 1 Pi bond and 3 Sigma bonds each
Left over P orbitals overlap side by side to form the one Pi bond
present in these orbitals
o Shape
SP2 orbitals can be identified by their trigonal planar molecular shape
o Therefore if a molecule has double bonds present or has a trigonal planar
molecular shape, it mostly likely features SP2 orbitals
In all double bonds, one of the bonds is a sigma bond and the other is a
pie bond
- Predicting Hybridization
o Best way to predict hybridization is to first draw out the Lewis structure for the
compound in question
o Then use VSEPR theory to identify the electron and molecular geometries of the
compound
Can use the molecular geometry to them predict the hybridization
present
- Back to the Ethene example
o As previously mentioned, Ethene is an alkene with a double bond present
Therefore both of the Carbons in it are SP2 hybridized
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