CHMA10H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Methane Clathrate, Clathrate Hydrate, Antifreeze ProteinPremium
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CHMA10H3 - Introductory to Chemistry I: Structure and Bonding – Lecture 9:
Ice on Fire
A Molecular-Level View:
•A single molecule of methane in a clathrate cage of water molecules. Cages of different
sizes occupied by methane molecules are linked together to form a methane clathrate
•Methane clathrate hydrate, in which guest methane molecules are trapped inside a cage
made of host water molecules.
•The bonding in methane clathrate hydrates is an example of supramolecular or host-
•Carbon dioxide and other small carbon compounds can also form clathrate hydrates.
•Gas hydrate or clathrate complexes are formed in nature when the host water and the
guest are present at the right concentrations and at relatively low temperature and high
•Massive amounts of methane are stored I this way in nature. This is potentially useful as
a source of energy and potentially dangerous to our climate if released into th
•Replacement of methane and ethane molecules in a clathrate hydrate with carbon
dioxide. Simplified representations of each pf the gas molecules as single coloured
•Spectroscopy can be used to monitor the reaction.
Fishing for Solutions to Pipeline Clathrate Plugs:
•An antifreeze protein produced by the winter flounder is quite effective at preventing both
the formation and growth of methane hydrate crystals in laboratory tests.
Methane Fuelling Human Activity:
•Thermo genic methane: methane produced by buried decaying organic material
exposed to heat and pressure.
•Combustion of methane to produce energy = CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) + H2O(g)
•Valuable feedstock in industrial chemical processes to produce H2(g) and CO(g)
CH4(g) + H2O(g) – CO(g) + H2(g)
CO(g) + H2O(g) – CO2(g) + H2(g)
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