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Lecture

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39 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA10H3
Professor
Ann Verner

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Unit 7
- Quantum mechanical theory of the atom
- Model that explains how electrons exist in atoms
- Nature of Light
- Wave particle theory
- Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
- Energy from oscillating electric and magnetic field
- Wave composed of oscillating mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic
fields propagating through space (page. 278)
- 
- Electric field- region of space where electrically charged particles experience
a force (2 protons together feel a force when close together)
- Magnetic field, region of space where magnetic particles experience a force
(2 magnets brought together will feel a force)
- characterize waves by amplitude (vertical height/crest) and wavelength (distance
between adjacent crest), both are related to quantity of energy carried by wave, frequency
(number of cycles that pass through a stationary point in a given time, Hz (1 cycle/s))
*v=cycle
- Longest wavelength (750 nm, Red), shortest wavelength (400 nm, violet)
- Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Index of all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
www.notesolution.com
- Short wavelength has more energy /than long wavelengths of EMR
- Shortest to lonest wavelength of EMR is gamma rays, X-rays, UV radiation,
Visible light, Infrared radiation, microwaves
Interference and Diffraction
- Interference- waves in reacting with each other can cause
- Constructive- waves that align and overlap (in phase)
- Destructive- crest from one source overlaps with the trough (out of phase)
- Diffraction- obstacle/slit, waves behind or diffract around it
- Each slit acts as a new source
Particle Nature of Light
- Photoelectric effect- observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines
upon them
- light energy comes in packets
*, h= plancks constant,   
- packet of lights is called a photon or a quantum of light
*
*Threshold frequency condition,
- low frequency light does not eject electron because no single photon has minimum
energy to dislodge electron
*, difference between energy of photon and binding
energy
- wave- particle duality of light
www.notesolution.com
-light appears to behave like a wave and particle
Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model
- atomic spectroscopy- study of the EMR absorber and emitted by atoms
- when atoms absorbs energy, it often reemits that energy as light
- emission spectrum- single element emits certain colours organized in bright line
Electrons Wave Nature
- De Brogile Wavelength
- wavelength related to KE, faster electron moving= shorter wavelength
*, de Broglie relation
- Uncertainty Principle
- Unable to simultaneously observe both the wave nature and the particle
nature of the electron
- when trying to observe which hole the electron goes through (particle
nature) you lose interference pattern (wave nature)
- electrons particle and wave nature are complementary properties, (exclude
one another)
- Heisenbergs uncertainty principle
- cannot simultaneously measure velocity and position of an electron
- The more accurately you know the position of an electron the less accurately
(smaller x) you know its velocity( v) and vice versa
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Unit 7 - Quantum mechanical theory of the atom - Model that explains how electrons exist in atoms - Nature of Light - Wave particle theory - Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) - Energy from oscillating electric and magnetic field - Wave composed of oscillating mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields propagating through space (page. 278) - - Electric field- region of space where electrically charged particles experience a force (2 protons together feel a force when close together) - Magnetic field, region of space where magnetic particles experience a force (2 magnets brought together will feel a force) - characterize waves by amplitude (vertical heightcrest) and wavelength (distance between adjacent crest), both are related to quantity of energy carried by wave, frequency (number of cycles that pass through a stationary point in a given time, Hz (1 cycles)) * v cycle = - Longest wavelength (750 nm, Red), shortest wavelength (400 nm, violet) - Electromagnetic Spectrum - Index of all wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation www.notesolution.com - Short wavelength has more energy than long wavelengths of EMR - Shortest to lonest wavelength of EMR is gamma rays, X-rays, UV radiation, Visible light, Infrared radiation, microwaves Interference and Diffraction - Interference- waves in reacting with each other can cause - Constructive- waves that align and overlap (in phase) - Destructive- crest from one source overlaps with the trough (out of phase) - Diffraction- obstacleslit, waves behind or diffract around it - Each slit acts as a new source Particle Nature of Light - Photoelectric effect- observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them - light energy comes in packets * , h= plancks constant, - packet of lights is called a photon or a quantum of light * * Threshold frequency condition, - low frequency light does not eject electron because no single photon has minimum energy to dislodge electron * , difference between energy of photon and binding energy - wave- particle duality of light www.notesolution.com -light appears to behave like a wave and particle Atomic Spectroscopy and the Bohr Model - atomic spectroscopy- study of the EMR absorber and emitted by atoms - when atoms absorbs energy, it often reemits that energy as light - emission spectrum- single element emits certain colours organized in bright line Electrons Wave Nature - De Brogile Wavelength - wavelength related to KE, faster electron moving= shorter wavelength * , de Broglie relation - Uncertainty Principle - Unable to simultaneously observe both the wave nature and the particle nature of the electron - when trying to observe which hole the electron goes through (particle nature) you lose interference pattern (wave nature) - electrons particle and wave nature are complementary properties, (exclude one another) - Heisenbergs uncertainty principle - cannot simultaneously measure velocity and position of an electron - The more accurately you know the position of an electron the less accurately (smaller x) you know its velocity(v) and vice versa www.notesolution.com
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