CHMA11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Lone Pair, Ion, Conjugate Acid

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CHMA11 Lecture 7: Acids and Bases
- Defining acids and bases
o There are 3 naming schemes used to classify substances as acids and bases
1: Arrhenius Theory
Only relevant for water and salts
Acid: a substance that produces hydrogen ions in an aqueous
solution
Base: a substance that produces hydroxide ions in an aqueous
solution
Acid/Base interaction
o Essentially claims that the hydrogen ions from the acid will
combine with the hydroxide ions from the base to form
water
o The cation from the base will combine with the anion from
the acid to make a salt
o Therefore claims that all acids and bases combine to form
water and a salt
Issues
o This theory does not handle bases without hydroxide ions
well
o The theory also doesnt work when the involved acids and
bases are unable to form water
2: Bronsted-Lowry Bases
Base: proton acceptors
o This theory claims that any material containing atoms with
lone pairs can be a bronsted lowry base
These lone pairs attract positive protons toward
them due to their negative charge
o Hydroxide is the strongest base allowed in water
Any stronger base will react with water to make
more hydroxide
Acids: proton donors
o Any material able to release protons as hydrogen ions
protons are always solvated in water
we tend to think of them as H30+
very rare for hydrogen ions to travel alone
will travel together as H30+ due to the
strong hydrogen bonds
Acid/Base interaction
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