CHMA11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 36: Trans Fat, Ester, Glycerol

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CHMA11 Lecture 33: Lipids
- 1: Lipids
o Recall there are 4 main types: fatty acids, fats and oils, glycolipids and
phospholipids, and steroids
ii) Fats and Oils: formed via esterification reactions of glycerol and fatty
acids
Involve an ester linkage between a glycerol molecules and 3 fatty
acids
o yields a compound also known as a triglyceride
o key features of triglycerides
glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains
Esterification: process involving the removal of a hydroxide from
a fatty acid and a hydrogen from glycerol
o Yields the triglyceride ester
o Reaction is reversible
o Protons are needed as a catalyst
Distinguishing between fats
o Alcohol + carboxylic acid = fat
o Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglycerol fats
Distinguishing between fats and oils
o Fats: triglycerides with no double bonds present
Are saturated and solid at room temperature
Cis vs Trans fats: both involve double bonds
Cis Fat: substituents attached to the
carbons of the double bond are on the
same side
o Are naturally occurring
Trans Fat: substituents attached to the
carbons of the double bond are on opposite
sides
o Are artificially occurring
o More linear
o Have higher dispersion forces and a
higher melting point
Tend to be solid in your binds
at room temperature
Dangerous because they can
potentially clog arteries
o Oils: triglycerides with double bonds present
Are unsaturated and liquid at room temperature
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