CHMA11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 39: Monosaccharide, Cell Nucleus, Hydrolysis

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CHMA11 Lecture 36: Nucleic Acids and Carbohydrates
- Nucleic Acids
o Linking of nucleotides
Phosphate connects third carbon of one sugar to the fifth carbon of the
next sugar
It is a phosphate linkage that connects nucleotides
Directionality is 5’ to 3’
New nucleotides are added to the 3’ end
o 5’ end: phosphate group is attached to the fifth carbon
o 3’ end: Hydroxyl group is attached to the third carbon
Therefore nucleotides are joined by chemical reactions between
the hydroxyl of the old nucleotide and the phosphate group of the
new nucleotide
Polynucleotide: formed by joining multiple nucleotides together
o Double Helix: DNA exists as two complementary strands that run antiparallel to
each other
the two polynucleotides chains are wrapped around in a coil shape
resembling a step ladder
Hydrogen bonds exist between the bases of both adjacent strands
toward the inside
o Yields the theoretical rungs on the ladder
o These base pairings therefore give the DNA its helical
shape
The sugar phosphate backbone makes up the outside of the
ladder
o Phosphate gives DNA a negative charge overall
- Carbohydrates: energy source of the cell
o Provides energy to do all reactions within cell
o Can be thought of as being either simple or complex
Simple Carbs: monosaccharides or disaccharides
One or two sugar monomers linked by glycosidic bonds
Are often isomers
o Will have their hydroxyl groups in altering places
Different locations of hydroxyl yields different
isomers
These different isomers have different properties
when they come together to form complex
carbohydrates
Monosaccharides: simple linear molecules composed of 3 atoms
o Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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