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CHMA11H3 (122)
Lecture

Chapter 12 Notes

13 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHMA11H3
Professor
Jamie Donaldson

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12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater
Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components
Solvent: majority component (water)
Solute: minority component
Seawater is a thirsty solution b/c of its tendency to MIX
12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility
Aqueous solution: water is the solvent and solid, liquid or gas is the solute
Solubility of a substance is the amount of substance that will dissolve in a given
amount of solvent
Natures Tendency toward Mixing: Entropy
Formation of solution doesnt necessarily mean lower the potential energy of the
particles
Homogeneous mixture mixture of two ideal gases
Neon and argon behave as ideal gases at low pressure and moderate temperature
Two gases mix b/c of entropy but not because of lowering potential energy
(remains unchanged)
Entropy: a measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system
Ex. Neon and argon gas both has kinetic energy confined in a system with
any temp. above 0K, when gases mix, Ek spreads out/dispersed over a larger
volume therefore mixture of gases has greater energy dispersal/greater
entropy
The pervasive tendency for energy to spread out, or disperse, whenever it is not
restrained from doing so is the reason that two ideal gases mix.
www.notesolution.com
Thermal energy from hot to god is another tendency toward energy dispersal
The Effect of Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular forces exists between: solvent-solute, solvent, and solute particles
Solvent-solute
interaction >Solvent-solvent +
solute-solute
interaction
Solution forms
Solvent-solute
interaction =Solvent-solvent +
solute-solute
interactions
Solution forms
Solvent-solute
interaction <Solvent-solvent +
solute-solute
interaction
Solution may/may
not form, depending
on relative disparity
Miscible: the ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all
proportions
Formation of solution is b/c of tendency of mixing/greater entropy
Disparity large solution will not form
Ex. H2O has strong H-bonding attraction but cannot form hydrogen bond w/
hexane
Energy to pull H2O molecules is too great and too little energy is retuned
when the water molecule interacts with hexane therefore solution is not
formed
like dissolves like
12.3 Energetic of Solution Formation
Understand energy changes associated w/ solution formation by:
1.Separating solute into its constituent particles
www.notesolution.com
2.separating the solvent particles from each other to make room for solute
particles
3.Mixing solute particles with the solvent particles
Enthalpy of solution: the overall enthalpy change upon solution formation
H(solution) = H (solute endo +) + H(solvent endo +) + H(mix exo - )
Endothermic terms = magnitude to exothermic Hsolution = 0
Endothermic terms < magnitude to exothermic Hsolution = exothermic
Endothermic terms > magnitude to exothermic Hsolution = endothermic
Aqueous Solutions and Heats of Hydration
Heat of hydration: the enthalpy change that occurs when 1 mol of the gaseous
solute ions are dissolved in water
1.Hsolute < Hhydration
Exothermic
Feels warm
(-)
2.Hsolute > Hhydration
Endothermic
Feels cold
(+)
3.Hsolute = Hhydration
Solute dissolve in water solution do not undergo noticeable change
in temperature
12.4 Solution Equilibrium and Factors Affecting Solubility
www.notesolution.com

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Description
12.1 Thirsty Solutions: Why You Should Not Drink Seawater Solution: a homogenous mixture of two or more substances or components Solvent: majority component (water) Solute: minority component Seawater is a thirsty solution bc of its tendency to MIX 12.2 Types of Solutions and Solubility Aqueous solution: water is the solvent and solid, liquid or gas is the solute Solubility of a substance is the amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent Natures Tendency toward Mixing: Entropy Formation of solution doesnt necessarily mean lower the potential energy of the particles Homogeneous mixture mixture of two ideal gases Neon and argon behave as ideal gases at low pressure and moderate temperature Two gases mix bc of entropy but not because of lowering potential energy (remains unchanged) Entropy: a measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal in a system Ex. Neon and argon gas both has kinetic energy confined in a system with any temp. above 0K, when gases mix, Ek spreads outdispersed over a larger volume therefore mixture of gases has greater energy dispersalgreater entropy The pervasive tendency for energy to spread out, or disperse, whenever it is not restrained from doing so is the reason that two ideal gases mix. www.notesolution.com Thermal energy from hot to god is another tendency toward energy dispersal The Effect of Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces exists between: solvent-solute, solvent, and solute particles Solvent-solute > Solvent-solvent + Solution forms interaction solute-solute interaction Solvent-solute = Solvent-solvent + Solution forms interaction solute-solute interactions Solvent-solute < Solvent-solvent + Solution maymay interaction solute-solute not form, depending interaction on relative disparity Miscible: the ability of two or more substances to be soluble in each other in all proportions Formation of solution is bc of tendency of mixinggreater entropy Disparity large solution will not form Ex. H2O has strong H-bonding attraction but cannot form hydrogen bond w hexane Energy to pull H2O molecules is too great and too little energy is retuned when the water molecule interacts with hexa netherefore solution is not formed like dissolves like 12.3 Energetic of Solution Formation Understand energy changes associated w solution formation by: 1. Separating solute into its constituent particles www.notesolution.com
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