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CITB01H3 (54)

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City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

Lecture 1 Notes What is an urban system - all cities combined in one country Why did people first start immigrating to Canada - for resources (e.g. fur) Fur is an easy commodity to transport You don’t need a lot of people to explore the land for resources, hence why the population stayed very small for a long time - staples theory Beginning of 19 century the trade of fur declined Dominant natural resource became lumber This caused larger ships to go and come to Canada bringing new immigrants to the country Halifax, St. john, Fredericton were the main cities at the time People migrated westward to Canada because it was the hotspot for natural resources Everyone had to walk everywhere so everything had to be in a small proximity, hence why downtown is so condensed Why did people want to leave in the early 19 century The enclosure movement 1851 – population 2.5 million Lecture 2 Notes First national policy implemented in 1879 Canadian national railway was built to facilitate trade between eastern and western Canada West coast transported natural resources and agriculture East coast transported machinery and technological goods CNR is the first pillar of the First National Policy Late 19 , early 20 century, there was massive immigration from European origins because Canada sold land at such lucrative rates John A. McDonald imposed a tariff on international imports so the farmers would buy machinery from the eastern provinces and in turn stimulate the economy The Quebec-Windsor corridor is the industrial heart of the country Significant growth of cities and the working class in the turn of the 20th century The invention of the streetcar allowed an out-ward expansion of the community Condensed commercial neighbourhoods were still prominent in close proximity to residential neighbourhoods (e.g. Main St.) Fordism - Henry Ford made the production of cars more efficient by the introduction of production lines This allowed the working class to get higher wages and purchase the goods they them selves produced This launched an era of commercially produced goods Keynesianism – to stimulate the economy and aggregate demand by promoting full employment (e.g. welfare to un-employed, invest in training programs) Canada economic action plan (1930s) – investment in public infrastructure This promotes more jobs – more income, hence more spending The mass purchasing of vehicles increased need for roads – which again produced more jobs This caused large scale suburban communities – urban sprawl Major transition of the commercial industry from shopping regions in downtown to shopping malls It was perfectly fine to live in low-dense suburbs – gas was cheap, cost of property was cheap, transportation wasn’t an issue New planning ideology asks for the ‘mixing’ of the classes Canada is one of the most urbanized countries in the world Over the last 20-30 years we could see the prominence of metropolitan areas Metropolitan areas are ones with booming economic and population growth The five most prominent are GTA, Greater Montreal, Vancouver and area, Calgary area, Ottawa-Gatineau area Decline or outward migration of population occurs where jobs are decreasing (e.g. Newfoundland and northern Ontario) Losing and winning areas both have unique planning challenges Losing regions might want to stimulate the economy and make the region a more desired area to live in Winning cities (e.g. Toronto) have challenges such as building sufficient living infrastructure Province of Ontario is implementing plans such as a growth management plan called Places to Grow Greenbelt Plan on the other hand is protecting and conserving natural areas and resources Lecture 3 Notes Intra-urban structure – to do with suburbanization and outward expansion People started thinking about planning from a different perspective late 19 th th century, early 20 century MTV syndrome – 75% of all immigrants in Canada are settling in Montreal, Toronto or Vancouver – Why? – (see below) More economic activity is happening in the large cities Over the past 30-40 years, we’ve seen a large decline in the manufacturing sector and a gradual shift in the service sector Also there is a decline in the primary sector (farming) The state has also changed it role In the post-war period, the government had a goal to evenly distribute economic activity The government wanted to get everyone to enjoy the same standard of living The state is not any longer AS active There is an uneven urban geography in Canada Due to recent discoveries of flaws in planning, such as extra commuting times with suburbanization we’re starting to rethink the way we’ve grown our cities We now focus on intensification When national economies ‘industrialize’ cities grow because more workers are needed This is how Canada grew so fast after John A. McDonald implemented his tariffs, etc Canada has basically learned from it’s historical planning flaws and mistakes th th The reform period (late 19 century – early 20 century) 1) city beautiful movement 2) Housing reform movemen
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