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University of Toronto Scarborough
City Studies
Ahmed Allahwala

LECTURE 2 January 15, 2014 11:04 AM - Review ○ URBAN PLANNING: influencing the process of urban development which is primarily fueled by private developers ○ Approaches to planning:  Developer's perspective: maximize profit, want your development application to be approved  Community advocacy's perspective: non-profit community based organizations, strive to improve livelihood of marginalized groups  Municipal planner's approach: "the planner": individuals employed to the city that oversee the planning process in municipalities, planner must figure out if the plan meets intent of city ○ Planning and politics of choice  Everyone has different opinions on what needs to be built and where which leads to conflict  Planners= part of the negotiating process ○ Historical specificity of planning  "historically specific" a commonly accepted practice today may be overthrown in 20-30 years. Dominant ideologies from the 1950s are not necessarily relevant. The way we see the world changes over time  1950s: No one knew about global warming, carbon footprint BUT that's engrained in today's discussion  Gardiner Expressway: built during the time of the private car, today: there's a problem of congestion, pollution, it cuts thecity off the waterfront (which is recreational space, space for condo development and the Gardier cuts the city off)  Yorkdale Shopping Centre: during time that everybody has the car, shopping can be done in a decentralized way now b/c of thecar  Regent Park: largest public housing complex, when it was built in 1940-50 was to do slum clearance + put all low-income people in this place, began being labelled as a "ghetto" "crime ridden", just realized that it was wrong to put all the slums in the same place. Planning in the 50s: to put same people in same place but today, it's about social mixing…combination of different groups ofpeople to raise overall quality of life  What was commonly expected practice no longer holds true today  Africville Halifax: entirely African-Canadian community but in the 60s in the name of "slum clearance" evicted the residents of Africville □ This was done in the name of slum clearance and now planners would consult the community as opposed to just doing it  There are no "Truths" but only temporarily accepted wisdoms - Canadian Urban Development: Past and Present ○ Two dimensions of urban growth and development  "urban system" all Canadian cities, their relationship to one another, their economic significance within a broader economy  "intra-urban structure" look at one city and its internal structure, distribution of different land uses, morphology ○ Mercantile Period (1600-1800)  Canada has been occupied that it has been occupied by Natives/indigenous population  Historical development of Canada and see how cities develop in this broader historical context  17th century, arrival of the first European colonizers  The colonial project was tied to exploitation of a particular natural resources  Hudson's Bay Company: Fur Trade (first primary resource that was exploited in Canada) □ Who was involved in fur trade? Natives with colonial fur traders □ Harold Innis: Staples Theory, we have to look at fur + fur trade + try to explain how Canada developed during that period  High value commodity  Not labour intensive  Population remained relatively small, not many people involved in fur trade  The vessels that were used to ship the fur were relatively small as well which meant that immigrants would not come back to Canada  Where were the first settlements of the Europeans in Canada: East Coast and then along the St.John River-along the main rivers  Settlements remained small during that time ○ Agricultural Expansion (1800-1850)  Lumber became the next dominant export, stopped being fur □ Production of lumber implies: more labour power required, much bulkier than the fur, required larger vessels, allowed more people to come from Europe to North America □ At that time, there was a big famine in Ireland, higher demands in global market □ Intense agricultural expansion, the new immigrants became farmers which then allowed the colony to develop another crucial staple which is wheat ○ Canada's Industrialization (1850-1945) the Great Boom  Confederation in 1867, which was the unification of separate colonies to create Canada  First national policy: (John A McDonald) to protect Canadian industry □ Import tariffs : put disadvantage on American imported and helped emerging Canadian industries □ Creation of continental railway: agricultural expansion moved to Alberta, beneficial link of the railway: transport agricultural products from the west to the east so that they can be shipped out via the Atlantic Ocean □ Large scale immigration: needed to grow labour force for industries and agriculture, government launched campaign to get people to come to Canada  Where did industrial development grow? □ Ontario and Quebec: Quebec City Windsor Corridor, aka Heartland of Canada  ROC was relegated to hinterland status which means: agricultural production ◊ Important b/c of which cities grew and which ones did not ◊ Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto and Windsor grew significantly, where most of manufacturing was located  Emergence of street car, people could live farther way allowing cities to grow b/c of this new technology  Advances of engineering and construction technology CITB01 Page 1  Advances of engineering and construction technology  Diversification of urban form: emergence of business buildings, no residental homes  Early suburbanization: richest residents were able to move outward ○ Fordist-Keynesian Era (1945-1975)  After the WWII, entered a period of relative stability  Ford (the car company) credited with the assembly line (Which achieved efficiency, standardization of production, productivity went up =mass production and mass consumption) □ $5 a day wage, more money than usual □ For the first time in industrialization, the working class was able to purchase the good it produced □ Keynesianism: government controls the economy, government should play an active role in regulating the economy which was referred to as demand management (subsidized products, minimum wage, social safety programs = allow individuals to purchase goods)  Underlying assumption: counter cyclical  Should economyslow down, that's when the state needs to step in and make sure demand stays up  Mass consumption and it's relation to urban development: encourages suburbanization, the state actively promoted home ownership through beneficial mortgages, investment in infrastructure  Decline of central business district, emergence of regional shopping malls, d CITB01 Page 2 Lecture 3 January 22, 2014 11:03 AM Review - Urban System vs Intra-Urban Structure ○ System of ALL cities, their relative dominance, their relationship to one another ○ Intra-urban structure: the structure within cities ○ Can talk about urban system as a whole (all cities) or the specific structure of one specific city - Urban development ○ Mercantile Period: stables theory (Innis): can understand Canada's development by looking at the dominant staples in a givenmoment of time. IN this period, it was fur -> lumber -> wheat -> Canadian industrialization + growth of cities -> Suburbanization - Last 20-30 years ○ Dominant trends in Canadian urban system  Metropolitan Dominance: small number of core urban areas that dominant a given national urban system. □ Rather than having 200 medium-sized cities, we see a strong dominance of a very small number of core urban areas. Contrast in urban development between core metropolitan areas and those outside. □ 5 core urban regions (more than just municipalities. They are broader regions)  GTA or Greater Golden Horseshoe: City of Toronto + 5 adjacent areas.  Greater Montreal: 2nd largest city, Montreal used to be Canada's major city but in 1960's the Quebec Elites were Anglophone (a minority) but then Francophones + Quiet Revolution. A movement of greater Quebec national consciousness- debate about whether or not Quebec should separate from the rest of Canada.  Vancouver and the Lower Mainlands  Calgary-Edmonton Corridor  Ottawa- Gatineau  Why are some areas declining in population: lack of jobs (in Northern Quebec and Northern Ontario it was mainly mining and agriculture which is relatively declining)  Factors that contribute to uneven development of Canada's urban system? Growing inequality in terms of economic inequality/ diversity □ Immigration- they settle in the cities. MTV (Montreal Toronto and Vancouver) syndrome- about 70% settle in these areas- Toronto being 50% □ The service sector is growing, shift away from manufacturing/agriculture. There are more employed in "service economy". It provides white collar jobs (lawyers, professors) and low-skill/low-wage (restaurant workers, janitors)  4 trends that can be looked at in an effort to explain uneven development ◊ Immigration: availability of jobs, ethnic networks in these areas, immigrants choose to move to areas with their ethno cultural networks ◊ Shift to service economy ◊ Canadian state has weakened, more flow between Canada and the US in terms of capital.  Globalization, free market ideologies  The state has retreated from supporting industries from active regional development. They stopped providing subsidies ◊ Changing role of state: state is trying to distribute jobs but not as much as it used to.  What are the specific planning challenges of Canada's growing and declining urban regions? □ Growing: need to accommodate population growth (infrastructure needs to be proportionate to population it carries. For example, crowded buses indicates that there is an infrastructure overload, the city grows but infrastructure does not support it = INFRASTRUCTURE DEFECIT) □ Declining urban regions: need to worry about how to retain people/ attract businesses, immigrant attraction, economic development - History of Planning ○ Planning: about achieving a desirable goal ○ Emerged in 19th century industrial city  Canada's cities grew exponentially in (1850-1945 due to industrialization + growth in manufacturing located primarily in the cities) □ Did not grow in a planned/orderly fashion which led to concerns: city appearance, living conditions, environment, efficiency(no efficient infrastructure/emergency services)  Grown too fast and there is no system to run the city  City beautiful: how they look  Living conditions: housing reform  Environment: parks movement  Efficiency: city efficient movement: public health/emergency services ◊ Graph: moves all the way to current time,  There is a certain continuity, some of these concerns are STILL with us today but changed the strategies to approach these issues  City Beautiful Movement: ◊ Chicago: became opportunity to test the suggestions, attempt to rebuild city.  Awareness about urban design/public spaces - did not have concern for urban design before ◊ Questions of aesthetics were raised at this point  Concern over living conditions: ◊ Exponential raise of labour workers who ended up living in overcrowded/dangerousconditions ◊ Slum clearance, creating housing for the working class (with better conditions) = requires the state to play a more active role ◊ People in power did not want the working class to live near them but it is better to diverse the working class so that they do not start a revolution ◊ This led to the housing reform movement: disperse the working class (out of crammed spaces), Garden City by Ebenezer Howard (green belts, areas that are off limits for development) CITB01 Page 3 Ebenezer Howard (green belts, areas that are off limits for development)  Influenced planning and building of garden cities  Hufeisensielung Berlin, Germany: improving conditions of working class with green spaces – Example of application of housing reform principles  Parks and Playground Movement ◊ Concern over the lack of green space for the working class - no parks/trees ◊ People/ groups pushed for parks/playgrounds in working class areas ◊ Led to the creation of a series of parks, growing awareness for need for urban green spaces.  Parc Mont Royal Montreal, QC: set aside spaces for parks  City Efficient/ Scientific Movement ◊ Concern for infrastructure, emergency response units which were not in place, there was no strong local government that could provide infrastructure/ or money allocated for this ◊ Growing concerns: fire, disease and lack of transportation  Fire services were private at one point (have to pay for through insurance) – Great fire in Chicago called for a more public/collectiveprovision of these services ◊ Emergence of civil engineers: concern for public infrastructure □ The Urban Question in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th century  City officials began talking about inefficiency of Canada's growth + the specific growth of cities □ Institutional Development of Planning  Increasing conservation (agricultural land, green space, wild life habitats) emerged as a result of that economic growth in 19th century.  1909 created Commission of Conservation ◊ Thomas Adams: planning consultant  1919 Creation of Town Planning Institute ◊ A professional body ◊ The emergence indicates an increasing institutionalization of a profession ◊ To become a planner, need to be a member of the Canadian Institute ◊ Provinces: created legislation in terms of planning ◊ There was a fear of socialism  The capital world was cautious of how much planning the state should do. Planning itself is a state intervention. Proponents of planning faced resistance – Planning remained small based on liberalism, free market capitalism □ Great Depression  Planning came to halt b/c of low levels of unemployment  one of the solutions was to create a more active state= New Deal which was large public investment into the state = construction of roads, highway ◊ Acceptance of the greater role of the state  The WWII ended the great depression ◊ Women: needed in factories to produce immunition □ WWII + Reconstruction  Challenge: how do we switch from wartime economy to peacetime economy AND maintain the stimulus of the economy? ◊ Related to reconstruction + suburbanization+ home ownership  Ontario: Department of Planning and Development(1944) + Canadian Institute of Planners (1952) ◊ Universities established programs in planning  Indication of institutionalization + formalization of planning □ PostWar Boom  Stimulated the economy, need for planning  Freeway construction: because it was the means that supported home ownership, aggregate demand (cars, fridges) ○ Historical Continuity of Modern Planning Ideas  A lot of continuity about the concerns/ reform ideas □ Increasing awareness among planning that they need to plan healthy communities - Continuity + politics of planning CITB01 Page 4 Lecture 4 January 29, 2014 11:02 AM Review - Growing disparity between growing and shrinking regions ○ 5 core regions, the rest staggering - Factors that contribute to the uneven growth/shrinking ○ Immigration, shift towards service economy ○ Changing role of state: state was much more active in redistribution but now it has withdrawn - History of planning ○ Concern of aesthetics, living conditions, public health, efficiency (public infrastructure or lack thereof)  Lack of public body to oversee these projects  Led to 4 reform movements/ solutions ○ Continuity of planning ideas  Planning ideas change over time because new questions that need to be considered BUT some of the earlier reform ideas are still relevant (healthy living conditions for example) ○ Institutional history of planning  Creation of professional body, creation of university programs in city studies/planning Ethics and Values in Planning - Understanding political nature of planning/ethical guidelines - Can planning be objective/value-free? ○ 1950s: planning was all about scientific models, rational choice = objective ○ 50 years later: Not very objective, now it's diverse population w/ different interests/opinions  Toronto Island Airport and Porter's wish to expand the pathway (current debate) □ Planners: make recommendations and city council makes the ultimate decision  "Staff": people employed within the city, that will provide city councilors w/ information What values are important? What will guide your professional practice? - ○ Environmental consciousness (sustainability) ○ Role of history/culture/ social/ heritage: is it worth to preserve history? ○ Aesthetic values ○ Economic values ○ Social and cultural values ○ Scientific values ○ Political values: decisions that are beneficial to everyone, fairness/justice ○ Consensus building easy with shared values - "Public Good" ○ Basement apartment bi-laws: municipal regulations on what you can/cannot do  Province pushed for legalization of basements, municipalities need to allow people to change basements into rental units □ Values at play: affordability, sustainability/ efficiency, decrease in property values (when you attract low-income families to middle class home basements), safety, ○ Issue of "Monster Homes"  Vancouver, immigrant families  Values at play: culture/social values (different family structure), aesthetic values (didn't fit the neighborhood) ○ Fairness and Equity: political value  "priority investment neighborhoods" with a high-levels of social need (high unemployment, high high school dropouts)  Subway Expansion Plan □ LRT serve many more than the Subway expansion plan  Equity/equality main issue ◊ "transit equity" ◊ Do the people who rely the most, do they have sufficient access to it? ○ Africville  African american community in Halifax Lecture 5 February 5, 2014 11:13 AM - Africville ○ What does this have to do with the Ethics of Planning?  City officials justified removing/relocatingAfricville by saying it looked like a "slum", the unsafe living conditions  The residents paid property taxes, owned the land, municipality however did not provide the necessary services  People used planning, bureaucracy to violate peoples' rights, expropriate them □ Negativity behind planning ○ Muslim condo complexin Thornhill  Jaffari Centre proposing to build residential buildings  What is the response from the City/ Ctizens? □ Low-density area □ Not aesthetical pleasing, zoning bi-laws (not zoned for that type of development) (CON) □ Foster a sense of community,enhancing the Muslim community, form of intensification because it combines different uses (residential + religion) (PRO)  Example of where values clash, where there is resistance, this tension leads to a public consultationmeeting □ Touches on values, public participation, planning has to hold a statutory meeting (developmentproposal, people can go and speak about concerns/opinions) □ Examples of multicultural planning  Planner: communicatorwho is capable of mediating/finding compromise - The Planning Process ○ How does planning actually operate ○ Patrick Geddes  Pioneer who developedearly planning theory (what planners do), first to conceptualize planning  Planning involves 3 steps □ Survey - cannot plan without understanding the status quo, the current situation, need to collect data, need to look at the city, produce statistics □ Analysis- understand how the situation came about, underlying factors, constraints, analyze, interpret what you have surveyed □ Plan- after that, you are in a position to develop a strategy for future action  Missing in his model: □ The opinion of the public is missing, need public participation from the people who are affected by the planning-- consultation/inclusionis missing □ Need a clear state of planning goals □ Planner: as you move towards your goals, need to periodically check-in/ re-access or re-survey □ Planning alternatives, multiple ways of doing things- planning depends on the allocation of resources ○ New Model:  Survey situation, goals,, findings, alternatives, evaluation of the options, select preferred choice □ More responsive to changing external circumstances since it's hard to predict the environment  Develop the Goals □ Name of the document that outlines the planning goals,, objectives + policies of a municipality?  "The Official Plan" AKA OP ◊ Outlines goals, strategies and the long-term vision to manage and direct physical change  Mandated by the province to have one ◊ Applies to development,planners make decision of whether it meets the intent of the plan  Planners review developmentplan, and make recommendationin regards to whether or not it meets the INTENT of the City's Plan ◊ Muslim Condo Towers: Opponents argue that the area is zoned for low-density development,they applied for zoning by-law amendment so that they can build these residential towers, so that they can build residential towers against the by-law. □ Constraints for Creative Planning  Fiscal constraints: lack of money available ◊ City creates public/private partnerships for more $  I.E. Highway 407, something you pay for  Market Imperative: observing the markets  Electoral imperatives: city councillors want to be re-elected so their concerns is a different one. If planners propose an unpopular proposal, less likely to be supported by city councillors ◊ Plan may be side-tracked depending on the political priorities ◊ Governance Structure in the City of Toronto  44 City Councillors, each representing a ward  City Council ultimately making all the decisions, delegate discussions to committeessuch as the Planning and Growth ManagementStanding Policy Committee – City councillor is the chair, number of councillors that understand the subject matter, committees report to council but the committees (sub-groups) get information from the divisions and departments (planning division is one, planners write reports + submit it to relevant committees before going to council) CITB01 Page 6 relevant committees before going to council)  City staff that drives the policy process (reports are submitted to these committees and council votes on this) – Rob Ford says staff will recommendtaking down the Gardiner  "staff": people in the departments and divisions, studying options, etc  City staff saying expressway needs to be taken down, unsafe  Planners need to figure out how to accommodate this kind of traffic  Rob Ford: elected official  Opposes this plan - Public participation ○ Key pieces missing from the model proposed by Patrick Geddes ○ Not all consultationmay be effective  Criteria: □ Participants satisfied with level of participation involvement? □ Is it transparent and accessible? □ What is the purpose of this process?  People need to know the parameters of the consultation ○ Evolution of Participation  Pre-1960s:simple announcementsto Public that announced decision that has already been made  1960s-1970s: peak of the Cold War/ Vietnam War which led to peace movement+ protests; Civil Rights Movement; Gay/Lesbian Movement.General upheaval, social unrest all over the place, the baby boomerschallenged the authority of the state. New forms of social movementsemerged and gained significant momentum - feeling of social discontent. □ Led to changes in the way planning takes place, public officials should not speak on behalf of the people, process was expanded  1980s-1990sonward: planning goes beyond consultation, mediation, conflict resolution, agreed that there are different opinions, the planner therefore mediates in an informed manner. □ Resistance against the Spadina Expressway: integrated freeway system (move people in and out of the city for work, suburbanization). The proposal was made, residents + J Jacobs ressisted that movement,challanged authority □ Sherry Arnstien: Ladder of Citizen Participation  Most influential conceptualizationof different degrees of participation  Starts at manipulation to citizen control: the power of the people increases as you move up the ladder ◊ Africville: city officials manipulated the residents, $500 as an "incentive" ◊ Tokenism: you do it because you have to, not because you care - not meaningful input ◊ Values reflect how serious you take the citizen participation □ Degrees of Public Involvement(Marshall and Roberts)  Lowest level: persuade or manipulate -- self-determination ◊ Commonforms of public involvement:information sharing and feedback and consultation  Section 37: developergets to do more (build higher) if he or she provides some kind of community benefits. Developergets exception to make more$ (to build additional
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