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CLAA06H3 Lecture Notes - Pediment, Eileithyia, Cup-Bearer

Classical Studies
Course Code
Vikki Cochioni

of 4
Ancient Mythology Lec 02 01/16/2013
Pantheon (All the gods)
Each major god did something to maintain supremacy - Uranus kept
his children on Earth - Cronus devoured his children
Zeus escapes being eaten by Cronus with the help of Rhea - Rhea
gives Cronus a stone instead of Zeus to eat, while Zeus is given and
raised by the nymphs in a mountain cave on goat milk and honey, and
guarded by the Curetes (young men)
Delphi considered most sacred in the world because it contains the
stone that people considered Zeus and would sacrifice oil - The stone is
displayed in Apollo's shrine called omphalos ("navel")
Nympha greek word for bride - nymphs protect springs and are
considered frozen brides (virgins)
With the help of his five rescued brothers and sisters, the Cyclopes and
the Hecantochires, Zeus fights Cronus and the other titans
Zeus' battle with Tyophoeus, Chtonian (comes from earth) a winged
serpent-like creature born from the union of Gaea and Tartarus, that
Zeus will throw back into Tratarus
Zeus' battle with the Giants, born from Uranus' blood and Gaia - the
"earth-born" imprisoned under the earth - Gigantomachy (Battle with
the giants)
Zeus' sexual union to the Oceanid (Daughter of Oceanus - One of
Titans) Metis (intelligence) and Athena's birth
Zeus can see future and sees that Metis will give birth to a son that will
overthrow him, so he decides to eat Metis to solve his problem - Later
Zeus suffers from pain and is in labour, and asks Hephaestus (Hammer
- Smith God) to come, and hits Zeus on the head, and Athena is born
from Zeus' head fully clothed w/ armour a shield and a spear - As soon
as she is born she asks her father for eternal virginity
Men (mortals) created by Zeus or Prometheus, the son of the Titan
Iapetus (A titan that took Zeus' side) - The female race according to
Hesiod, was creaded seperately and later (Social segregation in
Athenian soceity)
Zeus or Prometheus uses water or earth, the word human comes from
homos which means soil in latin
Zeus punishes several sons of Iapetus for "excessive pride", Atlas holds
the heavens at the western extremity of the word (where the
Hesperides are) after the Titanomachy while Prometheus bound in the
Caucasus Mountains; his liver eaten by Zeus' eagle - The reasons fro
Prometheus' punishment: 1. the feast trick at Mecone (old name for
Sicyon), an etiological account for the practise of sacrifice AND 2. the
theft of fire and brought it to the earth (The fire in the heavens was the
Greeks used to burn bones of sacrifised animals and believed the
smoke would go up to the sky & the gods
The creation of Pandora - When Zeus finds out about the fire, he gives
the humans Pandora in exchange for the stolen fire (told by Hesiod) -
Zeus imagines her and Hephaestus builds her up and other gods give
her other characteristics as well - She is a gift to humanity but Hermes
made her deceitful (Hesiod)
Pandora brings from Zeus a deceiving jar (pithos). Epimetheus,
Promethues' and Atlas' brother, marries her. Pandora opens the jar and
all the evils come out, except for hope (eplis) which remains with
Pandora. - Jars tend to be associated with women (recipients) -
Scholars take hope as expectation but hope is commonly considered as
something you take for granted and only find it after seeing all the evil
- Hope is like a trusting openness towards the future for humanity by
Pandora is the first parthenos (virgin/maiden), in the process of
becoming a gyne (woman/wife) right after Epimetheus "marries" her.
In this sense the myth is an etiological account of marriage as social
institution - Gift giving with a dowry, clothing jewelery etc which would
stay with the bride
The Parthenon in Athens is the temple of Athena - Hellenistic statue of
athena on the base there is a depiction of the myth of Pandora - First
maiden connects with Athena, the eternal maiden
The Myth of the Five Races - Hesiod: gold, silver, bronze, heroes,
iron(The age that Hesiod lived - (The constant degradation of human
race) - Ovid only mentions four of them and emits the heroes
In Ovid, Zeus becomes angry at the degradation of the human race,
comes to earth disguised as a mortal, encounters Lycaon, a poor
person who tries to trick him and to kill him and eat him - Zeus decides
to send the flood and kills all humans except for Deucalion (son of
Prometheus) and Pyrrha (daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora)
The titaness Themis advises them: "toss the bones of your mother
(Gaia) behind your back" - One of the sons was Hellen (Greek word for
Greek), the eponymous ancestor of Hellas and its people, the Hellenes
- Etylogical creation of the Greek people
Cronus & Rhea's offspring: Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Hestia,
Zeus and the twelve Olympians (the Pantheon) - (Hades and Hestia
usually taken out of the Pantheon, because Hestia doesn't have much
myths about her nor a human figure and not very prominent, and
Hades because will receive the underwold and doesn't live in the
Other twelve Olympians (Children of Zeus) - Athena, Aphrodite (born
out of Uranus), Hephaestus, Ares, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Dionysus
Poseidon (Roman Neptune) - God of the sea, best known for
competition with Athena for the city of Athens (Poseidon offered the
people a salt water spring and Athena offered an olive tree) - Married
to Amphitrite, a Nereid (daughter of Nereus), they havea child Triton
(merman) - God of earthquakes
Hades (Roman Pluto) - God of the underworld etymologized "the
invisible" - Pluto is related to the greek word for "riches" represented
as a wealthy and rich and precious stones setting - Abducts Demeter's
daughter, Persephone, who bears no children to him
Hera (marriage to Zeus) - Seems to be another reenactment of the
sacred marriage (hierogamos) between the sky-god and the earth-
goddess, but it is different because Hera is not an earth-goddess which
is defferent from Rhea and Gaia, she is the goddess of marriage (Greek
monogamy), in this sense she represents the transition from parthenos
(virgin, unmarried) to gyne (woman, married) - Her most important
temples are in Argos (Pelopponisis) and Samos - Represented with a
bridal veil - In the island Samos (Previously known Parthenea) Hera
takes a bath every year to renew her virginity
Hera seduces Zeus to try to keep Zeus from going and being taken out
of to the Trojan Wars - Sexual intercouse related to making flowers and
rain - Rain has fertile meanings in Greek rituals - Earth considered
female and rain considered male when Permetheus created the
humans - Gamos means wedding and marriage and the first sexual