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Lecture 5

Week 5

11 Pages
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Department
Classical Studies
Course Code
CLAB06H3
Professor
Katherine Blouin

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12/02/2011 21:47:00
WEEK 5: Chapter 6-7 pages 166-204
Chapter 6: Italy Threatened, Enfranchised, Divided
War with Jugurtha (112-105)
After the death of Gaius Gracchus, 2 developments emerged that were both
external and took Rome by surprise
1st was a Numidian named Jugurtha, who was adopted by king Micipsa (the
son and successor to Rome longstanding ally Masinissa).
oJugurtha dad was brother of Micipsa but died prematurely
oMicipsa had his own 2 younger sons (Hiempsal and Adherbal)
oOn Micipsa death 118 kingdom left jointly to all three dem
oJugurtha had Hiempsal killed and Adherbal driven out of Numidia
Adherbal begged help from Rome; they dispatched Lucius
Opimius brutal consul of 121; he divided kingdom gave the west
to Jugurtha and the more developed east to Adherbal
Rome interfered in foreign affairs here cuz Numidia old
ally of rome now had common border with Africa so
Rome wanted stable neighbor there
Jugurtha invaded Adherbal territory and by 112 had him trapped
in his capital Cirta; Adherbal surrendered and was excuted
Numidia and Rome now in war; Rome le by commander
Quintus Caecilius Metellus succeeded by Gaius Marius;
Mariuis’s quaestor, Lucius Cornelius Sulla persuaded
Jugurthas ally King Bocchus of Mauretania to betray him
to the romans.
Jugurtha is excuted, Bocchus given part of Numidia and
a bro of jugurtha ruler of the east
Italy threatened from the North (113-101)
2nd development was a migration south by groups of germans (the Cimbri and the
Teutones)
oby 113 they had drifted to eastern Alps where they defeated Roman
consul and his army who were sent to watch them.
www.notesolution.com
oThen entered Rhone river valley posing threat to Rome province of
Transalpine Gaul (formed in 121) defeated another consul and his
army in 109
oRoman defeats in 107 and most serious in 105 in Arausio where
romans defeated due to refusal of Quintus Servilius Caepio (consul in
106) to cooperate with his supo italyerior, the novus homo consul
Gnaeus Mallius Maximus.
oVoters wanted to prevent repeats of the standoff bw Caepio and
Mallius at Arausio so Marius elected as consul; held this position for
5yrs in a row and 6 in total
oGerman tribes moved north instead of south toward italy; gave Marius
time to restore Romans army; when tribes turned south Marius
defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 and the Cimbri at
Vercellae in northern Italy in 103
oMarius became Romes savior, offered 2 triumphs took only 1
MariusCareer in Roman Politics
Marius was born 157 near Arpinum 60miles SE of Rome; family has
equestrian status but prominent only locally; somehow able to serve under
Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia; distinguished himself
oAfter military service attempted to stand for office at Rome w/backing
of leading noble family the Metelli; gained quaestorship in late 120s
followed by the tribunate in 119; failed to become aedile and barely just
secured praetor in 115
oBenefited $$$ from governship in Spain and married Julia-whose
family was patrician the Julii Caesares, aunt to Julius Caesar
In Spain showed talent for guerilla warfare; Quintus Mettelus made him
second-in-command when he fought Jugurtha in 109
oMetellus denied Marius to go to Rome to stand for consulship of 107;
wanted 50yr old Marius to wait till his own 21yr son was ready to be a
candidate too
oMarius returned to Rome ran for office anyway; when senate tried to
reappoint Metellus as commander in Numidia the Plebeian assembly
overruled and appointed Marius
www.notesolution.com
oMarius called for volunteers for the his campaign in 107 promising
them rewards; even took men of lowest census rating cuz the forces to
defeat Jugurtha too urgent; generous plots of land in Africa given to
surviving volunteers in 103 thanks to Saturninus
Sixth Consulship of Marius and second Tribunate of Saturninus
In 100 Marius needed help again from Saturninus in rewarding veterans who
had defeated the Cimbri and Teutones
Saturninus developed working partnership with Gaius Servilius Glaucia
oIn 102 Quintus Metellus (marius old commaner) proposed removing
both men from office without success
In 100 Saturninus was tribune again and Glaucia praetor; Saturninus
legislative proposals would provoke opposition
oHe proposed foundation of colonies and allocation of land in Greece
and Sicily for veterans of campaigns, and allocation of land in
Cisalpine Gaul for Roman cilivians
oHis opponents offended by a clause requiring all senators to take oath
to respect the law within 5 days of its passing or face a fine and
expulsion from senate
oOpposition found fault with the right that Marius was allowed to give
Roman citizenship on a small number of settlers in each of the new
colonies
This confirmed that not just Roman citizens but also allies were
to benefit from the program
Insinuated that Marius in sympathy for improving allies status
would next want to extend citizenship far more widely
oOpposition did everything to prevent a vote on the proposals
Tribunes imposed vetoes, calls to disband assembly on
religious grounds cuz thunder had been heard
Once saturninus saw that the proposals wud be rejected, Marius
veterans deployed to keep hostile voters away by force; ugly
force needed to ram proposal thru
Quintus Metellus refused the immediate need for senators to
take the oath and left Rome as soon as Saturninus proposed his
exile
Saturninus reelected as tribune in 99, repeatedly trying to have Glaucia made
consul
www.notesolution.com

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Description
12022011 21:47:00 WEEK 5: Chapter 6-7 pages 166-204 Chapter 6: Italy Threatened, Enfranchised, Divided War with Jugurtha (112-105) After the death of Gaius Gracchus, 2 developments emerged that were both external and took Rome by surprise st 1 was a Numidian named Jugurtha, who was adopted by king Micipsa (the son and successor to Rome longstanding ally Masinissa). o Jugurtha dad was brother of Micipsa but died prematurely o Micipsa had his own 2 younger sons (Hiempsal and Adherbal) o On Micipsa death 118 kingdom left jointly to all three dem o Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed and Adherbal driven out of Numidia Adherbal begged help from Rome; they dispatched Lucius Opimius brutal consul of 121; he divided kingdom gave the west to Jugurtha and the more developed east to Adherbal Rome interfered in foreign affairs here cuz Numidia old ally of rome now had common border with Africa so Rome wanted stable neighbor there Jugurtha invaded Adherbal territory and by 112 had him trapped in his capital Cirta; Adherbal surrendered and was excuted Numidia and Rome now in war; Rome le by commander Quintus Caecilius Metellus succeeded by Gaius Marius; Mariuiss quaestor, Lucius Cornelius Sulla persuaded Jugurthas ally King Bocchus of Mauretania to betray him to the romans. Jugurtha is excuted, Bocchus given part of Numidia and a bro of jugurtha ruler of the east Italy threatened from the North (113-101) nd development 2 was a migration south by groups of germans (the Cimbri and the Teutones) o by 113 they had drifted to eastern Alps where they defeated Roman consul and his army who were sent to watch them. www.notesolution.com o Then entered Rhone river valley posing threat to Rome province of Transalpine Gaul (formed in 121) defeated another consul and his army in 109 o Roman defeats in 107 and most serious in 105 in Arausio where romans defeated due to refusal of Quintus Servilius Caepio (consul in 106) to cooperate with his supo italyerior, novus homo consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus. o Voters wanted to prevent repeats of the standoff bw Caepio and Mallius at Arausio so Marius elected as consul; held this position for 5yrs in a row and 6 in total o German tribes moved north instead of south toward italy; gave Marius time to restore Romans army; when tribes turned south Marius defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 and the Cimbri at Vercellae in northern Italy in 103 o Marius became Romes savior, offered 2 triumphs took only 1 Marius Career in Roman Politics Marius was born 157 near Arpinum 60miles SE of Rome; family has equestrian status but prominent only locally; somehow able to serve under Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia; distinguished himself o After military service attempted to stand for office at Rome wbacking of leading noble family the Metelli; gained quaestorship in late 120s followed by the tribunate in 119; failed to become aedile and barely just secured praetor in 115 o Benefited $$$ from governship in Spain and married Julia-whose family was patrician the Julii Caesares, aunt to Julius Caesar In Spain showed talent for guerilla warfare; Quintus Mettelus made him second-in-command when he fought Jugurtha in 109 o Metellus denied Marius to go to Rome to stand for consulship of 107; wanted 50yr old Marius to wait till his own 21yr son was ready to be a candidate too o Marius returned to Rome ran for office anyway; when senate tried to reappoint Metellus as commander in Numidia the Plebeian assembly overruled and appointed Marius www.notesolution.com
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