Classical Greece

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Classical Studies
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Chris Wallace

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CLAA01 Oct. 11, 2012 Persian Wars Herodotus: ca. 485-430 Born in Halicarnassus Wrote of the Greco-Persian Wars in his work (and only surviving/known work) The Histories  Is known to be inaccurate and fanciful in his retellings Wrote of Greeks (those who spoke Greek) and barbarians (those who spoke other languages) Cyrus the Great: r. 559-530 BCE Persian king. Grandson of Cyrus I and son of Cambyses I Expanded his empire and it became the largest of that time  Conquered Median, Lydian, and Neo-Babylonian Empires in order to make his own empire Dreams  The grandfather of Cyrus the Great dreamt that Cyrus would eventually overthrow him so he sentenced the baby to death (leaving him in the mountains?). He was rescued by a slave lady, sometimes referred to as a dog (metaphorically) Was succeeded by his son Cambyses II, after Cyrus’ death in one of his campaigns  Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica were added to the empire by Cambyses II His daughter would marry Darius and give birth to Xerxes There was a sort of alliance with Sparta because their community was respected and they were considered equal to Persia. Athens, comparatively, was disliked because of their foreign policy and civil war, which Persia supported but Athens ended up not needing their support. Darius: 522-486 CLAA01 Oct. 11, 2012 Was the emperor at the time of Persia’s greatest strength and largest territory. The Behitsun Inscription  Provides a brief autobiography of Darius  Describes his successful campaigns and his wish for vengeance against Athens Ionian Revolt: 499-493 BCE First major conflict between Greece and Persia, first phase of the Greco-Persian Wars Aristagoras (tyrant of Miletus at the time) led attacks against the Persians. Incited Iona (a city that had been under Persian rule) into a revolt against Darius.  He did not ask for Sparta’s help is this revolt because they were too far from Miletus  Athens, on the other hand, had recently become a democracy, with the support of the Persians (which they did not end up needing, in the end). However, the city no longer wanted to be under Persian control so they supported the Ionian Revolt They captured the town of Sardis and burnt it down.  Darius wanted revenge against Athens for their support of the Revolt The Ionians were defeated at the Battle of Lade Eretria was another supporter of the Ionians in the Revolt.  Darius gained vengeance against them by capturing and destroying their city Marathon: 490 BCE Was a retaliation of the Ionian Revolt by Darius against Athens The Athenians marched to meet the Persians at the town of Marathon. They initially held off the original invasion, resulting in a five day stalemate. Militidiades, an Athenian general, convinced the Athenian army to attack the Persian fleet.  They were successful and those who fought in the battle, on the Athenian side, were given great respect when they returned home CLAA01
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