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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - September 20, 2012.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Chris Wallace

CLAA04 Lecture 2 - September 20, 2012 Ancient Mesopotamia & Egypt • Agricultural Revolution: 5500 BCE • Urban Revolution: 3100 BCE • Cuneiform • War btw Umma and Lagash 2500 • Sargon of Akad unites Mesopotamia: 2240 BCE • Enheduanna, Ziggurat Reign of Hammurabi: 1792-1750 • • Hittite SAke of Babylon:1600 Narmer Unifies Egypt: 3000 BCE • • Old Kingdom:2575-2134 • Mastaba, Djoser I:Ca. 2670 • First Intermediary Period: 2134-2040 • Middle Kingdom: 2040-1640 • Second Intermediary Period:1640-1532 • Hyksos • New Kingdom: 1532-1069 • Hatshepsut 1273-58 • Akhenaten: 1363-1347 The shift from the migrant lifestyle to the Agricultural Revolution - Mesopotamia was an ideal land mass as it had two main rivers. Easier to irrigate crops. Fertile crescent - Canals were required to be built to move water supplies to the middle grounds where the river was not near - B/c of central planning that organized a surplus, trading was supplied. ie. extra supply of wheat, could be traded for wood - for running of writing in general (literacy) - Tokens were given to represent goods to redeem at the storage houses - Cuneiform tablet with practice wedge-marks - A system of pictograms initially and the first system of writing - A series of patterns represented words and ideas - Cuneiform writing, the first writing system, triangular gauges. - allowed for a series of population growth both positive and negative (negative because more mouths to feed) - lead to the increase in conflict - First “historical event” - The war of Umma and Lagash - “Enlil, king of the lands, father of the gods, upon his firm command drew the border between Ninggirsu and Shara(ie. Lagash and Umma). Mesalim, king of Kish, at the command of the god Ishtaran, measured the field and placed a stele. Ush, ruler of Umma, acted arrogantly. He ripped out the stele and marched to the plain of Lagash. Ningirsu, hero of Enlil, at the latter’s command did battle with Umma. At Enlil’s command he cast the great battle-net upon it. Its great burial mound was set for him in the plain” - We can see that the decisions was led by their gods/ presence of divine authority - Third party(Mesalim, king of Kish) arbitration to mediate conflict - There is an artistic representation (Stele of the Vultures c. 2450 BCE) - Side A :Their King leading the soldiers of Lagash to battle, they are already walking on the corpses of their fallen enemies - showing the leader as on a much different capacity to the soldiers - Another piece of material culture; The Standard of Ur - showing Ur at war and Ur at peace CLAA04 Lecture 2 - September 20, 2012 - a continued theme to the end of the period (that there are two pieces to a city, one of peace and one of war) - in the center there is a divine figure, beyond the other humans around him - in the city of peace, there shows a system of central agriculture and planning(the redistribution of goods) - shows a banquet, once again showing a divine figure(with a blurry line between god and king) - First historical “person” Sargon of Akkad: 23rd C. BCE - his name is suspicious, because name means ‘just king” - took on a mythic status - supposedly child of royal parents, similar story to the birth of Moses(this story is a very common folklore motif) - United the entire region of Mesopotamia - founded the city Akkad - at the time no ancient cite where we can pin Akkad - in addition to united the city states, Sargon founded a dynasty - Ziggurat(c. 2100 BCE) buildings made out the fire bricks/mud bricks, which were built on hills - access to hardwood was scarce - Sargon was able to restore many of the Ziggurat’s after conquering the regions - then made his daughter a priestess Enheduanna “THe exaltation of Inana, 1-32” - Lady of all the divine powers, resplendent light, righteous woman clothed in radiance, beloved of Urac! Mis- tress of heaven, with the great diadem, who loves the good headdress befitting the office of en priestess, who has seized all seven of its divine powers! My lady, you are the guardian of the great divine powers!... Like a dragon you have deposited venom on the foreign lands... At your battle-cry, my lady, the foreign land bow low. - Most precious lady, beloved by An, your holy heart is great; may it be assuaged on my behalf! Beloved spouse of Ucumgal-ana, you are the great lady of the horizon and the zenith of the heavens... The Anuna kiss the ground with their lips before you. But my own trial is not yet concluded, a
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