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Lecture 2

LECTURE 2.docx

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Classical Studies
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Chris Wallace

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LECTURE 2  Agricultural revolution : 5500 BCE  Urban revolution : 3100 BCE o Cuneiform  War between umma and Lagash 2500  Sargon of Akkad unites Mesopotamia : 2240 BCE o Eneduamma Ziggurat  Reign of Hummarabi: 1792-1750  Hittle scak of Babylon : 1600  Narmer UNitfies Egypt : 3000 BCE  Old Kingdom : 2575-2134 o Mastaba Djoser1 : Ca. 2670  First Intermediayl Period : 2134-2040  Middle kingdom : 2040- 1640  Second intermediary peried : 1640-1532 o Hyksos  New kingdom: 1532-1069  Hatshepsut:1473-58  Akhenaten : 1363-1347 Mesopotamia  To get water = a lot of work/farming/ organization/ not and individual level, so they had smaller towns collecting it, Mesopotamians started collecting in small towns  Trading: materials traded for other raw materials : wood, pine  Centralized storage: people had tokens / then trade with neighbors or bring in and redeem o Pictorial rep of crops/ tokens treated like money/ they can be stored  Cuneiform : tablet with practise wedge marks o System of writing things down,  Rational authority= more population, more growth, more feeding – coming in contact with other territories then conflict: fighting over it o War of Umma and Lagash c. 2400 BCE :  Cities aren’t secular/ theocratic – all decision to the god/ not refer to their own king  Decision of war in the hand of god(patron deity)  King of Kish? Reference to king Mesalin: set a boundary post btw the war but the ppl of Umma ignored the boundaries  Bring in a third party so they are disinterested/ make a fair decision  Stele of Vultures (c. 2450 BCE) : Side B. God of the Lagash casting the battle net over the battle of field. Side A. Leading the war, he is the leader  The standard Of Ur: War : depict life and Ur(city) o 2 sides: one war and other peace o City of peace: cities evolved from agricultural , authorities – practicing  Sargon Of Akkad: 23 C. BCE o First historical leader : mythic status : child of royal parents: thrown in the river , someone found him o Becomes the cup bearer to king , he unites the entire region of Mesopotamia o He found the new city of Akkad’s empire ( his name) o He founded a dynasty and preserved it : ziggurat and Enheduanna  Ziggurat: temple: made of bricks, clay, mud – no wood ( no fire) so only the outside was made of good brick but the inside was made of cheap brick o R
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