CLAA01 Oct. 25
Rome: Early Republic (509 – ca. 800)
Cincinnatus (fl, 460 – 439)
It was believed that people should emulate Cincinnatus because of two of his actions:
When Cincinnatus was banished, he went and lived his life, even though he was
now extremely poor. This showed the virtue of having a simple life and being
happy with what you have.
When Cincinnatus was made dictator in 439, there was a famine and it was very
hard on the Plebeians. One of the Plebeians, Spurius Maelius, planned to buy
food and sell it back to the people of Rome at a much cheaper cost. To the
Patricians, this was viewed as a political threat. Cincinnatus was brought in and
asked Spurius to explain himself. While Spurius was explaining, Cincinnatus had
his right-hand officer kill the other man.
o This was viewed as a great act because, while it was illegal to just kill a
man without a trial, Cincinnatus had dealt with the threat of the Plebeians.
Camillus (fl. 400 – 350)
Was a dictator 396, 386.
He sacked Veii, an Estruscan city as the Estrucans were a huge enemy of Rome.
This was a large victory.
Camillus was exiled because he refused to give the newly captured land to the
Plebeians as a way for them to start a livelihood.
o However, this was considered a good act because the Patricians did not
trust the Plebeians and by opposing them, Camillus showed the proper
He did come back in order to fights off the Gauls who wanted to sack Rome.
Naevius (fl. 220 -200)
This is the first Roman writer who we have information about.
His epitaph reads: After Naevius, people speaking in Roman tongue are
o This is technically accurate: after Naevius, writers took on Greek styles of
writing for the next 150 years. Naevius’ works are the last truly Roman
works. CLAA01 Oct. 25
Greece and Macedon in the 4 century
King’s Peace (887)
This was issued by a Persian king, saying that all cities in Asia should be his.
Some Greek cities would be independent. In this treaty, it was considered an act
of war if it was not followed.
In 379, Sparta tried to attack Thebes. Thebes forms an alliance with Athens to
destroy Sparta. Eventually, Athens aligned itself with Sparta to ensure that
Thebes did not become too powerful.
Epaminondas (d. 362)
Phillip II (r. 359 – 336)
Philip was a Macedonian king who was technically never supposed to be king. His
father died after he discovered that his wife had been trying to replace him as king with
her lover. After the previous king’s death, there was the problem of deciding whether
one of his heirs should become king or whether the lover should have the title. Thebes
was called in to make the decision, making Philip’s brother king and taking Philip as
collateral. In Thebes, Philip studies military tactics and eventually moves back to
o Philip created a model army for his brother, armed with spears called
sarissa. They were 5.5 – 6 m long and weighed 5.5 kg.
o The creation of this army required trained, professional soldiers because
the sarissa were very hard to use.
o This army was called a phalanx.
When Philip became king after his brother’s death, he was already almost at war with
Athens and Thebes. In the next 15 years, Philip made Macedonia powerful. He did so
by playing his enemies off one another. He also formed political alliances by marrying
many different wives from different areas.
Demosthenes (384 – 322)
Battle of Chaeronia (338 BCE)
o It was Macedonia against an alliance of Athens and Thebes.
o By winning this battle, Philip entered Greece proper. He could have
destroyed Greece. Instead he formed the League of Corinthe. This league
included all except Sparta, working together to defeat the threat of Persia. CLAA01 Oct. 25
It is alleged that Philip’s death was caused by his male lover. This lover was named
Pausanias . When this relationship ended, Philip took another lover, also named
Pausanias. This angered the first Pausanias who then decided to intimidate the second
one. This led to Pausanias II committing suicide. This upset Philip’s father-in-law, who
had also been fond of Pausanias II. So he got Pausanias I drunk then gave him to a
group of stable boys, who then raped him. Pausanias I went to Philip to ask for revenge;
Philip didn’t give him this revenge but made him part of Philip’s personal guard. This
wasn’t good enough for Pausanias who then killed Philip.
This entire story is probably fabricated and caused by Greek prejudice. The
Greeks didn’t consider Macedonians full Greeks. So the Greek accounts are a
Alexander III, The Great (356 – 323) (r. 336 – 323)
Alexander became king after the death of his father, Philip II. He was 20 years old at the
time. His mother, Olympias, was a