The Punic Wars and the Late Roman Republic.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Chris Wallace

CLAA01 Nov. 8 Tophet (Cont.) Carthage did not have impact on Italian society, even though they were neighbours for close to 300 years. (This is an assumption) Despite the tophet, there is no definite information that Carthage sacrificed children. There is actually more information that Athens sacrificed children, potentially. They had several graveyards full of children‟s corpses instead of just one Carthaginian graveyard. However, it is not said that Athens sacrificed children Government of the Roman Republic: the Mixed Constitution Monarchic element: the consuls  Elected annually  Military leaders with full administrative control „Aristocratic‟ element: the senate  Diplomatic, financial control  Introduces legislation  Technically an advisory body that has a huge amount of power „Democratic‟ element: the popular assembly  Decides to make war and peace  Ratifies laws etc  Tries all capital crimes Other magistrates: mainly elite Rome had a good government as long as they had an outside threat. Without an outside threat, they have a terrible government that turns on itself. First Punic War 264 – 241 BCE Messanna: taken by Mamortines, after the Mamortines had been invited into the city. After this, the Mamortines become land pirates. Syracuse king became tired of the „land pirates‟. He won a victory against them which scared them off of taking over lands. They appealed for protection from Carthage and gained it. Even though they had an ally with Carthage, the Mamortines appealed to Rome for protection. CLAA01 Nov. 8  Rome should have said no because Mamortines already had an alliance wit Cathage.  Still, they said yes and this started the first Punic war War was mostly fought in Sicily. The Carthaginians were too strong an navy so Rome began making their own navy. Practiced how to row on land to make great sailors. The Corvus – a Roman invention with a grappling hook attached to a gangplank. This allowed the Romans to land on other boats by just dropping the hook on the other boats.  This was first used at Cape Mylae and was a success 256, Rome decides to invade North Africa  After Carthage was defeated, there was an attempt to make peace with Rome. But the North African commander, Regulus was refused. This angered the Carthaginians so they continued the war  Was killed by Carthage after he was sent to Rome as a hostage to negotiate peace. He didn‟t, instigated more war and went back to Cart Publius Cladius Pulcare  Made admiral of Roman fleet in 249  Tried to tempt Carthaginians into war at Drepareum o Tried to do this even if there were bad omens o Sacred chickens were supposed to give omens on boats – the chickens did not give a good omen so Publius kicked them into the sea and went to fight the war. He lost. The Great Mother (as wrote by Cicero)  Romans wanted a new goddess to help them out – so they imported a Eastern goddess called the Great Goddess o The statue of the goddess could only be brought to the city by virgins and chaste womans  According to Cicero, Publius Cladius‟s sister didn‟t continue her task of doing this and brought great shame Eryx  Eryx was a stronghold of Carthage o Rome kept building fleets and Carthage couldn‟t keep up o So peace was declared CLAA01 Nov. 8 Rome’s demands to end war  Paying all of Rome‟s war costs  Ceeding Corsica, Sicily,  32 bushels of silver coin (83 metric tons of money) After First War, the mercenary troops that the Carthaginians had been using turned on Carthage so they had to deal with that. 236, Carthaginian expansion began in Spain  Rome initially had no issues with this  Hannibal captured a town that was Rome‟s. This meant war against Carthage. Second Punic War 218 – 201 BCE Hannibal  Rome sent troops to Spain and North Africa to defeat Hannibal o Instead, he went across the Alps to Italy o Brought elephants across Alps – all but one died  His army of 30 000 turned to about half that by the time he reached Italy o This was still more than Rome could deal with, after sending all of their troops to Spain and North Africa  Knann was biggest Roman defeat ever in history – caused by Hannibal o 70 000 men were lost o This led to concerns that there would be no more men to actually fight in the war The constitution kicked in because things were so desperate that they had an outside enemy  This was how they managed to keep fighting  They also had many colonies to draw soldiers from Old guard of Rome was killed by Hannibal. This allowed for a new social class because the old ones were gone  Scipio family became a new powerful army after Publius won against Hannibal  They were mst powerful family for the next 70 – 100 years Publius Cornelius Scipio (Africanus) – was most famous of family  Landed army in North Africa (Zama) and defeated Hannibal, the first to do so.  This ended the war CLAA01 Nov. 8 THIS IS A SUGGESTED STORY: Rome wanted to know why they had so many problems, after the defeat at Zama. They went to Delphi to ask for help, they suggested human sacrifices.  Two vestal virgins were accused of being unchaste – one was buried alive and one killed herself.  Cantilius slept with one of the virgins so he was sacrificed as well. Rome’s punishment to Carthage  Overseas holding eliminated  Limits placed on how large their standing army could be  Not allowed to engage in military action
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