CLAA01 Nov. 8
Carthage did not have impact on Italian society, even though they were neighbours for
close to 300 years. (This is an assumption)
Despite the tophet, there is no definite information that Carthage sacrificed children.
There is actually more information that Athens sacrificed children, potentially. They had
several graveyards full of children‟s corpses instead of just one Carthaginian graveyard.
However, it is not said that Athens sacrificed children
Government of the Roman Republic: the Mixed Constitution
Monarchic element: the consuls
Military leaders with full administrative control
„Aristocratic‟ element: the senate
Diplomatic, financial control
Technically an advisory body that has a huge amount of power
„Democratic‟ element: the popular assembly
Decides to make war and peace
Ratifies laws etc
Tries all capital crimes
Other magistrates: mainly elite
Rome had a good government as long as they had an outside threat. Without an
outside threat, they have a terrible government that turns on itself.
First Punic War 264 – 241 BCE
Messanna: taken by Mamortines, after the Mamortines had been invited into the city.
After this, the Mamortines become land pirates.
Syracuse king became tired of the „land pirates‟. He won a victory against them which
scared them off of taking over lands. They appealed for protection from Carthage and
gained it. Even though they had an ally with Carthage, the Mamortines appealed to
Rome for protection. CLAA01 Nov. 8
Rome should have said no because Mamortines already had an alliance wit
Still, they said yes and this started the first Punic war
War was mostly fought in Sicily. The Carthaginians were too strong an navy so Rome
began making their own navy. Practiced how to row on land to make great sailors.
The Corvus – a Roman invention with a grappling hook attached to a gangplank. This
allowed the Romans to land on other boats by just dropping the hook on the other
This was first used at Cape Mylae and was a success
256, Rome decides to invade North Africa
After Carthage was defeated, there was an attempt to make peace with Rome.
But the North African commander, Regulus was refused. This angered the
Carthaginians so they continued the war
Was killed by Carthage after he was sent to Rome as a hostage to negotiate
peace. He didn‟t, instigated more war and went back to Cart
Publius Cladius Pulcare
Made admiral of Roman fleet in 249
Tried to tempt Carthaginians into war at Drepareum
o Tried to do this even if there were bad omens
o Sacred chickens were supposed to give omens on boats – the chickens
did not give a good omen so Publius kicked them into the sea and went to
fight the war. He lost.
The Great Mother (as wrote by Cicero)
Romans wanted a new goddess to help them out – so they imported a Eastern
goddess called the Great Goddess
o The statue of the goddess could only be brought to the city by virgins and
According to Cicero, Publius Cladius‟s sister didn‟t continue her task of doing this
and brought great shame
Eryx was a stronghold of Carthage
o Rome kept building fleets and Carthage couldn‟t keep up
o So peace was declared CLAA01 Nov. 8
Rome’s demands to end war
Paying all of Rome‟s war costs
Ceeding Corsica, Sicily,
32 bushels of silver coin (83 metric tons of money)
After First War, the mercenary troops that the Carthaginians had been using turned on
Carthage so they had to deal with that.
236, Carthaginian expansion began in Spain
Rome initially had no issues with this
Hannibal captured a town that was Rome‟s. This meant war against Carthage.
Second Punic War 218 – 201 BCE
Rome sent troops to Spain and North Africa to defeat Hannibal
o Instead, he went across the Alps to Italy
o Brought elephants across Alps – all but one died
His army of 30 000 turned to about half that by the time he reached Italy
o This was still more than Rome could deal with, after sending all of their
troops to Spain and North Africa
Knann was biggest Roman defeat ever in history – caused by Hannibal
o 70 000 men were lost
o This led to concerns that there would be no more men to actually fight in
The constitution kicked in because things were so desperate that they had an outside
This was how they managed to keep fighting
They also had many colonies to draw soldiers from
Old guard of Rome was killed by Hannibal. This allowed for a new social class because
the old ones were gone
Scipio family became a new powerful army after Publius won against Hannibal
They were mst powerful family for the next 70 – 100 years
Publius Cornelius Scipio (Africanus) – was most famous of family
Landed army in North Africa (Zama) and defeated Hannibal, the first to do so.
This ended the war CLAA01 Nov. 8
THIS IS A SUGGESTED STORY:
Rome wanted to know why they had so many problems, after the defeat at Zama. They
went to Delphi to ask for help, they suggested human sacrifices.
Two vestal virgins were accused of being unchaste – one was buried alive and
one killed herself.
Cantilius slept with one of the virgins so he was sacrificed as well.
Rome’s punishment to Carthage
Overseas holding eliminated
Limits placed on how large their standing army could be
Not allowed to engage in military action