The Julio-Claudian Dynasty and the High Empire.docx

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Classical Studies
Chris Wallace

CLAA01 Nov. 22 Augustus: 27 BCE – 14 BCE People outside of Rome accepted Augustus as the son of a god (Julius Caesar). This led to a type of religious control during his rule of Rome. Augustus formally annexed Egypt, an extremely wealthy area. The area shall never be governed by a senator but by a member of the equestrian league.  He gets all of the taxes from Egypt, adding to his other riches, setting himself up as the sole source of state funds. This became the new imperial treasury, straight from the treasury of Augustus. This made him the supreme military leader of Rome.  All Roman soldiers had to draw their pay from this treasury, making them loyal to this new type of control. Livy: 59 BCE – 17 CE Whole point of writing his history is to affect the moral renewal that Augustus implemented.  So Livy played up the importance of Augustus‟ family.  Was extremely well-favoured by the royal family Vergil: 70 – 19 BCE Popular because he supposedly wrote about the birth of Jesus, gave people in middle ages a reason to continue to read ancient Roman literature because it good be read as Christian work.  It is not about Jesus  Though, due to this, his poems are thought to be prophetic. In his work, Aeneid 1.1, wrote in diatic hexameter, like Homer  Like Homer, he referenced Pius Aeneas : duty to family, to the state, and to the gods  Aeneas, only left his home because he was told to do so by gods (1 type of Pius Aeneas) and carried his father on his back (family Pius Aeneas), for the good of Rome (state Pius Aeneas) CLAA01 Nov. 22 Horace: 65 – 8 BCE A lot of his works were about how to live in the new world order  He wrote carpe diem (and U of T‟s motto) Odes 3.2  It is sweet and fitting to die for the fatherland [Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori] Ovid: 43 BCE – 17 CE, exiled in 8 CE Most famous poet after the death of Virgil. Refused to write to the „party line‟ of Augustus.  He did not remember a time that the Republic was actually functioning (he was a year old when Julius Caesar died). He wrote about love affairs (following Catullus‟ model). Wrote about adulterous love affairs. Then went a step further and wrote a book about how to coerce women into sex (Ars Amatoria).  This is pretty subversive because at this time, Augustus was strictly punishing any type of adultery.  Ovid went even further, telling people to pick women up at buildings that Augustus had built/dedicated.  Instructed men to find women at the theater and picking out their chosen woman while the statues of Augustus and his main people are paraded around the theater. o Said this was acceptable because Romulus had allowed his men to pick out the women they wanted to rape in a type of theater. Ended up being exiled. Augustan vs. Republican portraits Augustan: idealism Bare feet: only gods show up naked in portraits… Augustus had clothes but bare legs and feet = half godly. Republican: realism with faults magnified CLAA01 Nov. 22 Forum of Augustus “I found Rome a city of bricks; I left it covered in marble” Temple of Mars: piety and success of civil war The Ara Pacis Senate voted to build an altar of peace in honour of Augustus (for fighting two wars) Voted in 13 BCE, dedicated in 9 BCE Image of Aeneas, shows link between founder of Rome (Aeneas) and Augustus, the founder of the „new‟ Rome.  Aeneas making a sacrifice on the site of Rome  Aeneas, hypothetically, brought the gods from Troy to Rome Sacrificial Procession  Led by Augustus, dressed in the normal robes of a Republican state priest  Agrippa, lead lieutenant of Augustus‟ army Roman Religion „Roman‟ religion is pretty similar to Greek and Egyptian religions. Sacrifice: take something that has value and destroy it as a gift to the god. Everything that happened in Rome required a public sacrifice of something in order for success.  Do ut des (I give, so that you give) o Sacrifice something so that they will get something in return  Processions  Feasting  Affirms social bonds; affirms social hierarchy Pax Decorum (Peace of the Gods): Rome is only prosperous when gods are happy with them  Conservative: Mos Maiorum (custom of our ancestors) o We continue to do what our ancestors did so that we can continue having the gods happy with us  Orthopraxy vs. Orthodoxy CLAA01
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