CLAA01 Nov. 22
Augustus: 27 BCE – 14 BCE
People outside of Rome accepted Augustus as the son of a god (Julius Caesar). This
led to a type of religious control during his rule of Rome.
Augustus formally annexed Egypt, an extremely wealthy area. The area shall never be
governed by a senator but by a member of the equestrian league.
He gets all of the taxes from Egypt, adding to his other riches, setting himself up
as the sole source of state funds. This became the new imperial treasury, straight
from the treasury of Augustus. This made him the supreme military leader of
All Roman soldiers had to draw their pay from this treasury, making them loyal to
this new type of control.
Livy: 59 BCE – 17 CE
Whole point of writing his history is to affect the moral renewal that Augustus
So Livy played up the importance of Augustus‟ family.
Was extremely well-favoured by the royal family
Vergil: 70 – 19 BCE
Popular because he supposedly wrote about the birth of Jesus, gave people in middle
ages a reason to continue to read ancient Roman literature because it good be read as
It is not about Jesus
Though, due to this, his poems are thought to be prophetic.
In his work, Aeneid 1.1, wrote in diatic hexameter, like Homer
Like Homer, he referenced Pius Aeneas : duty to family, to the state, and to the
Aeneas, only left his home because he was told to do so by gods (1 type of Pius
Aeneas) and carried his father on his back (family Pius Aeneas), for the good of
Rome (state Pius Aeneas) CLAA01 Nov. 22
Horace: 65 – 8 BCE
A lot of his works were about how to live in the new world order
He wrote carpe diem (and U of T‟s motto)
It is sweet and fitting to die for the fatherland [Dulce et decorum est pro patria
Ovid: 43 BCE – 17 CE, exiled in 8 CE
Most famous poet after the death of Virgil.
Refused to write to the „party line‟ of Augustus.
He did not remember a time that the Republic was actually functioning (he was a
year old when Julius Caesar died).
He wrote about love affairs (following Catullus‟ model). Wrote about adulterous love
affairs. Then went a step further and wrote a book about how to coerce women into sex
This is pretty subversive because at this time, Augustus was strictly punishing
any type of adultery.
Ovid went even further, telling people to pick women up at buildings that
Augustus had built/dedicated.
Instructed men to find women at the theater and picking out their chosen woman
while the statues of Augustus and his main people are paraded around the
o Said this was acceptable because Romulus had allowed his men to pick
out the women they wanted to rape in a type of theater.
Ended up being exiled.
Augustan vs. Republican portraits
Bare feet: only gods show up naked in portraits… Augustus had clothes
but bare legs and feet = half godly.
Republican: realism with faults magnified CLAA01 Nov. 22
Forum of Augustus
“I found Rome a city of bricks; I left it covered in marble”
Temple of Mars: piety and success of civil war
The Ara Pacis
Senate voted to build an altar of peace in honour of Augustus
(for fighting two wars)
Voted in 13 BCE, dedicated in 9 BCE
Image of Aeneas, shows link between founder of Rome (Aeneas)
and Augustus, the founder of the „new‟ Rome.
Aeneas making a sacrifice on the site of Rome
Aeneas, hypothetically, brought the gods from Troy to Rome
Led by Augustus, dressed in the normal robes of a Republican state priest
Agrippa, lead lieutenant of Augustus‟ army
„Roman‟ religion is pretty similar to Greek and Egyptian religions.
Sacrifice: take something that has value and destroy it as a gift to the god. Everything
that happened in Rome required a public sacrifice of something in order for success.
Do ut des (I give, so that you give)
o Sacrifice something so that they will get something in return
Affirms social bonds; affirms social hierarchy
Pax Decorum (Peace of the Gods): Rome is only prosperous when gods are happy with
Conservative: Mos Maiorum (custom of our ancestors)
o We continue to do what our ancestors did so that we can continue having
the gods happy with us
Orthopraxy vs. Orthodoxy CLAA01