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CLAA05 LEC02.docx

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Classical Studies
P Ferguson

LEC02: Notes & Readings : 1-38 (Atrahasis), 228-277 (Epic of Creation), 278-281 (Theogony of Dunnu) -mesopotamia between Euphrates & Tigris -Subartu at the top, Akkad in the middle, and Sumer towards the bottom -Oasis hypothesis: climactic changes forced ppl around watering holes -Nucleur Zone hypothesis: Some areas were just better for growing wild cereals (genetic luck w/ those cereals) -Pop Pressure hypothesis: as pop increased, food crisis occurred -domesticated barley had strong rachis (so that seeds wouldn’t fall out), wild had weak rachis -Civilization needs 3 things: 10 000+ pop, monumental architecture (temples), & writing (literature) -first came Ubaid society -Enki (water god who brought earth out of water chaos) -Eridu (name of their capital city) -Uruk (next to Euphrates: the left river) was part of Babylonia -expanded to take over much Babylonia (going all the way up to Nippur) -in their period: cuneiform writing became a thing (written on clay tablets wit pictograms) -ziggurat: faced, painted, stepped pyramid -goddess Inanna (represented by double reed bundles to her right) -Chronology -2900-2700BCE Early Dynastic I Period -2700-2500BCE Early Dynastic II -2500-2350BCE Early Dynastic III Period -secularism developed, single leader authority (lugal or big man in Sumerian) -big palace buildings, large cities (competition for resources, warfare) -Uruk was a big city, its walls attributed to Gilgamesh, Ur was another big city, high domestic agriculture -Royal Cemetery of Ur found 2500 graves Period Akkadian & Ur III Period -Akkad is also called Agade -Akkadian Empire sacked by Gutians (2759BCE), -Sargon of Akkad ruled (called Sargon the Great), -Victory Stele of Narim-Sin (commemorates Narim-Sin’s victory over Lullabi tribe, he has horned helmet on as well standing above his soldiers) -Second mille
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