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CLAA05 LEC03.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
P Ferguson

LEC03: Notes & Readings : 154-162 (Descent of Ishtar to Underworld) and 163-181 (Nergal and Ereshkigal) -Sumerians thought world was surrounded by terrestrial ocean, amidst the primordial sea, with the sky (An) and the netherworld (Kur) -Theogony of Dunnu: -sons usurp their fathers -movement from plant to animal to human realms (ploughs to humans) -male gods (powerful, action, technology), females gods (wildness, passivity) -Enuma Elish is the epic of creation starring Marduk (or Assur in some versions) -Apsu (fresh water) & Tiamat (sea, salt water, chaos) -> Lahmu & Lahamu (hairy primeval heroes) as well as “muddy” (could be silt) -Apsu & Timat also made Kishar (earth) and Anshar (sky) -they had Anu (sky god) and Ea/Enki (also called Nudimmud, fresh water god, god of wisdom) -Apsu decides to kill the younger gods because of their noise, and Ea, learning about this kills him, establishing his corpse as his house (calling it “Apsu” too) -Ea & his wife Damkina give birth to Marduk -Marduk annoys Tiamat who gathers an army of 22 monsters, appointing god Qingu as king of gods and leader of army, he gets Tablet of Destinies (which can shape future) -Marduk & Tiamat then fight, Marduk wins and spares her guys (all except Qingu who gets killed) -Marduk puts half of Tiamat in sky, setting up constellations and moon -He makes weather (clouds, wind, rain, fog) from her poison -Euphrates and Tigris flow from Tiamat’s eyes -Mountains made from her udder -He then founded Babylon, between the sky and the apsu as home of the greater gods -Marduk then wants to make humans so that gods can live in leisure, so they kill Qingu and his blood is used to make humans (Ea makes the humans) -Marduk is Gil (who makes big piles of grain), he is Gilima (who makes bonds of the gods and stability), and he is also agilima (who tore out flood-waves and controlled snows) -Ipiq-Aya from Sippar (one of few named authors) who composed tablets -“when the gods instead of man” Atrahasis -also went by Utnapishtim, Ziu
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