Ancient Mythology Lec 03.doc

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Classical Studies
Vikki Cochioni

Ancient Mythology Lec.03 01/23/2013  Apollo - Son of Leto (Titaness) - Leto can only give birth on the island of Delos ("clear"). On the nearby island Ortygia she had given birth to Apollo's twin sister, Artemis. Hera, out of jealousy made sure no place accepted Leto, so she travelled until she found Delos. - Artemis, Hekate and Selene are all moon-goddesses - Shrine of Apollo in Delos but also in Delphi. - Seems as though Apollo comes and fixes places. - Leto, Apollo, Artemis (godess of child birth) often presented as divine family - Myth: Leto threatened by giant sent by Hera, that tries to rape Leto right after she gives birth to her twins. The giant is Tityos, and so Apollo and Artemis shoot him with arrows to protect their mother. - Myth: Niobe, a mother of seven sons and seven daughters that lived in Troy. She claimed she was more fortunate and happier than Leto. When mortals claim to be more fortunate than a god: Hubris (arrogance). Leto is upset so Apollo and Artemis shoot all her children. - Apollo represented as young man without a beard. He is the embodiment of youth. Represented by bows and arrows (similar to Artemis), however not a hunting god. He is the god of prophecies. - Myth: Apollo was trying to find a place for himself and asked a nymph Telphusa and she said a place near Darmasus, and Apollo finds a serpent that he shoots there. Angry at Telphusa, he punishes her for deception. At Delphi, he has to fight Python a female dragon. - Pythia: Priestess, and prophetess and virgin. Pythia's oracles at Delphi answers yes/no questions. Plate associated with grains and bartley that help Pythia read the future. - Myth: King Croesus asked Pythia if he should start a war against the persians, and her answer was that if he does "an empire will be destroyed". This made him think he'd win, but he was defeated and he realized that it was his empire that was destoryed. - Laural plant associated with Apollo and prophecy. Apollo is also represented by the sun sometimes - Overlap with Helios. - Apollo brings diseases to humans but also related to healing. His son Asclepius is the god of healing (Paradox). - Apollo represented by lyre because he's the god of music. He is the leader of the muses as well and the god of lyric poetry and the best lyre player and singer. - Myth: Masiyas claimed that he could play the lyre the best, so Apollo challenged him and he realized that this mortal really could play it better than Apollo. In envy and jealousy, Apollo slayed him alive (harshness and cruelty of Greek tragedies)  Apollo's Loves (In Ovid's Metamorphoses) - Many of which were prophetesses - Myth: Cassandra (Trojan Princess) accepted Apollo's advances, and then asked for the gift of being able to look into the futre (gift of prophecy). However after being given the gift, she went back on her word and rejected Apollo, and in fury, Apollo punished her by making sure no one believed her prophecies and thought they were all false.In Aeschylus' play Agamemnon,. Cassandra tells the people what will happen but no one believes her. She is later killed by Clytemnestra and Agamemnon. - Myth: Sibyl (Prophetess) accepts Apollo's advances at first and asks for immortality but then rejects him after being given the immortality. As a punishment, Apollo takes eternal youth from her, so she may live forever but still age and grow older. - Myth: Daphne, the nymph daughter of the river, is pursued by Apollo and runs away from him. As Apollo tries to catch her, she asks her father to turn her into a laurel tree. - Myth: Coronis, a mortal was pursued by Apollo, BUT she doesn't reject him and accepts him. However, while being pregnant with Asclepius, she sleeps with a mortal so Apollo shoots her with his arrows, however Apollo with help, saves the womb and gives it to the centaur Chiron (One of 2 good centaurs, while other centaurs portrayed negatively), to be taken care of. - Myth: Hyacinth (boy) responses to Apollo's advances, but during a discus game, Apollo throws the discus and it beheads him. From his head came the flower of Hyacinth.  Hermes (Roman Mercury) - Greek Herma = pile of stones (specific monument) - God of crossroads and travelers, thieves and merchants - Makes connection between heaven, earth and underworld - Psychopompos = "guide of the souls" - Often called Argeiphontes: "Killer of Argos" - Myth: Io (maiden) was loved by Zeus and wanted to have intercourse with her,
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