Article Review Instructions
Choose between three articles
Summarize the argument - about one page
Go through the evidence the author uses (plays, Hesiod, theogony, myths)
Then explain how this evidence is used to support the author
Quotations are not expected. 2-3 pages of your own words.
Learn the names and terms on slides
Understand who each person is
Exam will be multiple choice
Justice in Hesiod’s Succession Myth
First phase = primitive self-help
Gaia, Uranus, Cronus
Second phase = symbolic retribution
Involving Rhea, Cronus, stone
Rhea seeks retribution for the violence done against her and her children by
Cronus swallowing their children. Second retribution is done against Cronus by
repeating the cycle.
Third phase = Gift exchange
Zeus, powers of the gods Justice no longer consists of violent acts, justice now occurs because it exists in
the authority of Zeus.
Progression of Female Powers in Hesiod’s Succession Myth
Aphrodite, “an awful and lovely goddess”, born from Uranus’ severed genitals
It is dangerous because it clouds people’s judgment. Aphrodite is charged with
being the one who disrupts reason.
Gaia parthenogenesis (virgin birth) Uranus, Pontus, Mountains, Typhoeus
Hera, Athena, Hecate, Graces, etc.
Benevolent female goddesses whom have no part in reproduction or sexuality.
Gaia, Rhea, Metis
Metis is represented as a threat to the male authority of Zeus because she is an
intelligent female. Zeus’ solution to this is to swallow her and make her a property
Progression of Male Powers in Hesiod’s Succession Myth
Sexuality and Reproduction (male gestation through the stomach)
Uranus severed genitals the sea acts as a male womb
Cronus swallows and regurgitates children
Zeus gives birth to Athena through his head after swallowing Metis Concealment and Intelligence
Uranus and Cronus, an attempt to suppress the next generation
Zeus swallows Metis
Athena is a masculine goddess
Social Realities in Greece in Hesiod’s Succession Myth
The necessity of reproduction
The threat of reproduction and being replaced
oikos as a mini-polis/Gods as a family
If you belonged to a city in Greece, being a citizen and fathering children was the
only way to pass citizenship onto your children.
The threat of female sexuality
The fear of women bringing other men’s children into your home, making them
eligible to receive your property
Control over women
It was the ideal that women should never leave the home unless required at
festivals that allowed women to come.
Authority and justice
The Creation of Man (Round 1)
Created by Zeus or Prometheus
From Ovid’s Metamorphoses (1.76-85)
Man was fashioned from a divine seed or earth, which was mixed with rain water
by Prometheus, the son of Iapetus. This was a Roman version of the creation tale
Ovid made it known that he was aware of the multiple creation myths from the
Prometheus: Trickster and Champion of Mortals
Prometheus plots on behalf of mortals
Division of Sacrifice: an etiological myth
Prometheus separates the edible bits of the sacrifice and the inedible parts.
Edible humans. Inedible gods.
Prometheus takes the inedible meat and makes it appear meaty and yummy.
Then he takes the edible meat and hides it within an inedible stomach.
He brings this to Zeus, who sees through his trick but falls for it anyway.
Is Zeus a Jerk?
It is not possible to deceive or go beyond the will of Zeus; for not even the son of
Iapetus, escaped his heavy anger.
Punishment of Prometheus
Chained and impaled in the Caucasus
Liver is eaten by and eagle by day, regenerates by night – loops
He is visited by lo whom reveals to him the threat of Thetis. He brings this to
Zeus and gets back into his good graces.
Thetis was supposed to be stronger than his father. He sends Thetis to earth and
is raised by Peleus. This makes him into a weaker demi-god.
Freed by Heracles.
Io Loved by Zeus but his wife, Hera, tries to prevent his affairs and persecute his
other women or their offspring.
To deceive Hera, Zeus turns Io into a cow.
Zeus then gives Io to Hera as a present.
Argus, the one-hundred eyed beast, is made to watch over Io by Hera. Zeus
sends Hermes to slay Argus in order to free Io.
Hermes sings Argus to sleep in order to close all of his eyes. He becomes
Io is then turned into a gadfly.
She is returned to her original form upon reaching Egypt. Zeus impregnates her
by laying his hand on her. Isis and Apis are born.
Punishment of Mortals
Zeus removes fire from Earth, effectively making it impossible to have a
Prometheus steals it back from him, hiding it in a fennel stalk, and gives it to the
Zeus then creates woman.
Epimetheus (afterthought) is warned by Prometheus (forethought) not to accept
any gifts from Zeus.
Pan (all) + dora (gifts) = Pandora, the first woman
She is created from gifts given by all of the gods
A demoted fertility goddess
She is depicted as a goddess rising from the ground, suggesting agricultural
Pandora’s box is a mistranslation of Pandora