CLAA06 Lecture 3.docx

10 Pages

Classical Studies
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Alexandra Pohlod

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Article Review Instructions Choose between three articles Summarize the argument - about one page Go through the evidence the author uses (plays, Hesiod, theogony, myths) Then explain how this evidence is used to support the author Quotations are not expected. 2-3 pages of your own words. Midterm Learn the names and terms on slides Understand who each person is Exam will be multiple choice Justice in Hesiod’s Succession Myth First phase = primitive self-help Gaia, Uranus, Cronus Second phase = symbolic retribution Involving Rhea, Cronus, stone Rhea seeks retribution for the violence done against her and her children by Cronus swallowing their children. Second retribution is done against Cronus by repeating the cycle. Third phase = Gift exchange Zeus, powers of the gods Justice no longer consists of violent acts, justice now occurs because it exists in the authority of Zeus. Progression of Female Powers in Hesiod’s Succession Myth Dangerous sexuality Aphrodite, “an awful and lovely goddess”, born from Uranus’ severed genitals It is dangerous because it clouds people’s judgment. Aphrodite is charged with being the one who disrupts reason. Reproductive power Gaia  parthenogenesis (virgin birth)  Uranus, Pontus, Mountains, Typhoeus Hera, Athena, Hecate, Graces, etc. Benevolent female goddesses whom have no part in reproduction or sexuality. Concealment Gaia, Rhea Cunning intelligence Gaia, Rhea, Metis Metis is represented as a threat to the male authority of Zeus because she is an intelligent female. Zeus’ solution to this is to swallow her and make her a property of himself. Progression of Male Powers in Hesiod’s Succession Myth Sexuality and Reproduction (male gestation through the stomach) Uranus  severed genitals  the sea acts as a male womb Cronus  swallows and regurgitates children Zeus  gives birth to Athena through his head after swallowing Metis Concealment and Intelligence Uranus and Cronus, an attempt to suppress the next generation Zeus swallows Metis Athena is a masculine goddess Social Realities in Greece in Hesiod’s Succession Myth The necessity of reproduction The threat of reproduction and being replaced Patriarchal society oikos as a mini-polis/Gods as a family If you belonged to a city in Greece, being a citizen and fathering children was the only way to pass citizenship onto your children. The threat of female sexuality The fear of women bringing other men’s children into your home, making them eligible to receive your property Control over women It was the ideal that women should never leave the home unless required at festivals that allowed women to come. Authority and justice The Creation of Man (Round 1) Created by Zeus or Prometheus From Ovid’s Metamorphoses (1.76-85) Man was fashioned from a divine seed or earth, which was mixed with rain water by Prometheus, the son of Iapetus. This was a Roman version of the creation tale Ovid made it known that he was aware of the multiple creation myths from the Greeks Prometheus: Trickster and Champion of Mortals Prometheus plots on behalf of mortals Division of Sacrifice: an etiological myth Prometheus separates the edible bits of the sacrifice and the inedible parts. Edible  humans. Inedible  gods. Prometheus takes the inedible meat and makes it appear meaty and yummy. Then he takes the edible meat and hides it within an inedible stomach. He brings this to Zeus, who sees through his trick but falls for it anyway. Is Zeus a Jerk? It is not possible to deceive or go beyond the will of Zeus; for not even the son of Iapetus, escaped his heavy anger. Punishment of Prometheus Chained and impaled in the Caucasus Liver is eaten by and eagle by day, regenerates by night – loops He is visited by lo whom reveals to him the threat of Thetis. He brings this to Zeus and gets back into his good graces. Thetis was supposed to be stronger than his father. He sends Thetis to earth and is raised by Peleus. This makes him into a weaker demi-god. Freed by Heracles. Io Loved by Zeus but his wife, Hera, tries to prevent his affairs and persecute his other women or their offspring. To deceive Hera, Zeus turns Io into a cow. Zeus then gives Io to Hera as a present. Argus, the one-hundred eyed beast, is made to watch over Io by Hera. Zeus sends Hermes to slay Argus in order to free Io. Hermes sings Argus to sleep in order to close all of his eyes. He becomes Hermes Argeiphontes. Io is then turned into a gadfly. She is returned to her original form upon reaching Egypt. Zeus impregnates her by laying his hand on her. Isis and Apis are born. Punishment of Mortals Zeus removes fire from Earth, effectively making it impossible to have a civilization. Prometheus steals it back from him, hiding it in a fennel stalk, and gives it to the mortals. Zeus then creates woman. Epimetheus (afterthought) is warned by Prometheus (forethought) not to accept any gifts from Zeus. Pan (all) + dora (gifts) = Pandora, the first woman She is created from gifts given by all of the gods A demoted fertility goddess She is depicted as a goddess rising from the ground, suggesting agricultural wealth. Pandora’s box is a mistranslation of Pandora
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