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Zeus and Apollo.docx

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Classical Studies
Vichi Ciocani

Zeus and Apollo (Hades, Poseidon) Zeus’ omnipotence: - Zeus governs justice, hospitality, and supplication - God of storm “cloud-gatherer” - Zeus is always engaged in what occurs on earth - Seen with Aegis (“goat skin” or “violent storm”) breastplate - Xenia (xeno = stranger) idea of treating a stranger with respect and courtesy - Omnipotence and its limits: o Zeus’ sexual omnipotence  Many stories of Zeus abducting/having relationship with many women  He is known as father of creation of women  God of storm  with rain Zeus can penetrate anything - Zeus’ limitations: o Submit to fate = cant control it Hera (roman Juno): - Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage - Associated with Argos, Olympia, and island of Samos - Goddess of fertility and protects childbirth - Has only 3 children with Zeus: o Ares (god of war) o Eileithyia (goddess of childbirth) o Hebe (abstract deity “youth” ) - Asexually produced Hephaestus  cripple so thrown away o Hesiod o Hephaestus has a resentment toward the gods “Come with me, my Hera. We two will lie down in love, Desire for goddess or mortal has never so flooded my heart Or made it thump in my chest as now my passion for you. Not when I fell in love with Ixion’s lovely bride, …not in pursuit of DANAË, fair-ankled child of Acrisius, who bore me PERSEUS, my son, most honored of mortal men; Not in abducting EUROPA, daughter of glorious Phoenix, Who bore me MINOS the wise and the godlike Rhadamanthys; Not in my loves for SEMELE or ALCMENE, women of Thebes – The one bore DIONYSUS, the greatest joy to the world, The second gave birth to my son HERACLES, mighty of spirit – Not in my love for DEMETER, lady with soft fair braids, Nor that for glorious LETO – nor my love, my darling, for you! None ever shook my heart with the passion that now I feel.” - Homer’s Iliad (14.314-328) - Passage about Zeus’ desire to bed Hera after she seduces him (with the help of Aphrodite) to trick him o Hera wants to aid the Greeks in the Trojan war o Passage lists all the affairs he has and children he produced o Common theme is Hera’s jealousy of Zeus’ affairs and her revenge against the mistresses or the children produced  Danaë o Had a son named Perseus  Europa (listed in passage) --> princess and daughter of Phoenix o She is abducted by Zeus in form of bull  She sees a beautiful bull (Zeus transformed) and he convinces her to climb onto up of him and he abducts her o She bore Minos (the king who put the minotaur in the labyrinth)  Thebes bore Dionysus, he transformed as an eagle  Semele  Alcmene, only non-virgin o Had a son named Heracles o Alcmene was faithful to her husband, so Zeus transformed into her husband  Demeter --> earth goddess o She bore Persephone  Leto --> titaness o She bore Apollo and Artemis Poseidon: - Relation to Demeter as fertility deities - Had a competition with Athena for Athens o For patronage of Athens  Athena offered olive  Poseidon offered the ability for water to go anywhere o Athens accept Athena’s offer - Married to the Nereid Amphitrite (goddess of the sea) o Child = Triton (merman) - God of earthquakes Hades: - God of the underworld - “the invisible” - Also god of wealth or rich  related to Greek work “rich” - Abducts Demeter’s daughter Persephone  bares no children o Helps support the idea of sterility in the underworld Other deities: - Nymphs  inhabits all places o Represented young married woman with no children o Often displayed as erotic - Nereids  creatures of the sea o Ex. Thetis and Amphitrite - Oceanids  creatures of the sea Apollo: - Leto’s birth on Delos and Ortygia - She is seduced by Zeus and harassed by Hera - Hera forbids any land from allowing Leto to give birt
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