Class Notes (836,580)
Canada (509,856)
CLAB05H3 (17)
Lecture 3

Week 3: Sparta and Athens

4 Pages
66 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLAB05H3
Professor
Janet Mowat
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 3-CHAPTER 10: SPARTA AND ATHENS Spartan Government -Four main political institutions -Kings, the Council of Elders, the Council of Ephors (“overseers”) and the Assembly -Greatest honor in Sparta = being an Elder -No written laws -Kings controlled war + religion -Elders controlled law -The Ephors ensured fair play -The Assembly made the final decisions -Political power was in the hands of tiny elite -Drastic change = difficult, constitution = stable -Backroom deals, favoritism, betrayal = common -Never had a tyrant -For a while, Spartan was the greatest military power in Greece -Peloponnesian League = a Spartan alliance that is named by modern historians -The alliance swore to share the same friends and enemies + to follow Spartans -Hence no Greek state dared challenge Sparta directly Athens -Both Athenians + Spartans defined citizens + equal differently -Both faced similar problems, responded differently -Both had equal male citizenship th The 7 century Crisis -Both Sparta and Athens = more mouth to feed -First step for failing farmers = ask relative, friends, neighbors for help -Instead of going someone equally poor, someone richer may ask for land etc, until payment is made -No payment = debt-slave -Sparta maintained cohesion + reorganized society and their triumphant hoplite army -Athen’s ruling elite = Eupatridai (“well-born ones”) fell apart -Cyclon = young Olympic victor -When he failed, Athenians massacred his followers -The Athenian Assembly laid a curse on the important Alcmaeonid family for its part in murdering the suppliants -Dracon was empowered to set up a new law code -Death for virtually every crime Solon -Athens = lost their territory, aristocracy racked by feuds, class warfare was breaking out -The Eupatridai chose Solon, to work out a compromise with the rebellious poor -He made a new law code -He saw the ideal society as brothers -Redefined property rights in order to reorganize the existing economy + society -No one could own another freeborn Athenian -All current debt-bondsmen = freed -Athenians called Solon’s reforms the seisasachtheia or “shaking off of burdens” -Solon banned the export of grain from Attica -Increased prosperity after Solon -Athens flourished Solon’s Four Census Classes (Based on wealth) 1. Pentakosiomedimnoi = “five hundred-measures” -500 medimnoi -All political offices in state 2. Hippeis, “horsemen” -300-499 medimnoi -All political offices except treasurer 3. Zeugitai, yokemen -200-299 medimnoi -All lower political offices except treasurer or leader (“archon”) 4. Thetes = “poor” -Less than 200 medimnoi -No political offices but attended the Assembly/served as jurors -Nearly every Athenian was a thete -Nine archons = elected/year -A man could be archon only once, after he belong as a life-member of the council, “Aeropagus” (Stake of Ares) -Saw to lawsuits especially murder -Solon created juries manned by citizens of all classes to hear appeals -Solon created a “Council of 400” -Men chosen from the 4 tribes (poor were not allowed) -Drew up the agenda for the Assembly meetings -Solon wanted to create a balance btw rich + poor -He limited dowries to reduce men marrying for $ -Solon regulated women’s behavior + travel restricted them to the domestic sphere under male control Pisistratus + The Consequence of Solon’s Reforms -Solon’s cancellation of debt profited some and ruined others -Importing foreign slave had been made available -Cheap slaves allowed rich Athenians to stay rich without sending the poor into serfdom -Freedom and slavery depended on each other -Pisistratus, power aristocrat launched a bloodless coup + established a tyranny in Athens -Became popular by recapturing the island of Salamis from Athens’s rival Megara -Two Athenian rivals, Megac;es and Lycurgus pushed Pisi
More Less

Related notes for CLAB05H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit