Class Notes (806,630)
Canada (492,364)
CLAB05H3 (17)
Lecture 4

Week 4: Persia and Greeks

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Janet Mowat

Week 4-CHAPTER 11 PERSIA AND GREEKS Persia’s Northwest Frontier and the Ionian Revolt (521-494 b.c) -Darius set up local governors called satraps -Satraps were virtual kings within their provinces provided that they… -Kept peace -Kept taxes flowing -Provided troops -Their job was to deal quickly/cheaply with local problems with local problems -Darius seized the rich Greek island of Samos -Polycrates = tyrant of Samos -Gold ring + fish story -Persian satrap captured/crucified him -Darius pursued the Scythian but they didn’t give up -Darius withdrew, Scythians fought -They rode up to Darius’ only escape route, a bridge over the River Danube, and tried to persuade the Ionian Greeks he had left as guards to abandon it -If Darius + his army = destroyed, the Scythians urged the Greeks could rebel/be free -The pro-Persian tyrant of Miletus, Histiaeus opposed it -Said that it is better to be a tyrant under Persia than a regular citizen in a free polis -To fool Scythians, the Greek ruined a part of the bridge; but enough to allow for repairs -Darius raced to the bridge before the Scythians cut him off -Rewarded Histiaeus ~ a small territory -A Persian general wanted Darius that Histiaeus’ new territory is like a natural fortress -he might be planning a revolt -Darius offered Histiaeus to give up his new territory + live with the king as an advisor -Histiaeus gave the city to his nephew Aristogoras -Athenians offered earth and water to Darius in hopes for Persian support against Sparta -They accepted -A democratic faction seized the wealthy Greek island of Naxo -They exiled the former oligarchs -Asked Aristogoras to restore them, who agreed -Aristogoras asked for $ from Artaphernes -But later he couldn’t pay it back -Aristagoras talked to Ionian cities about revolt -Helped overthrown their tyrants -Sparta declined -Athens agreed; as well as Eretria (on the island of Euboea) -Ionians burned Sardis -Darius gathered a huge imperial army -Histiaeus persuaded Darius to send him back to help suppress the uprising -Some Ionians regretted rebelling against Persia -Aristrogoras fled to the city that was given to him by Histiaeus -He was killed -Ionians elected sailor Dionysius from Phocaea to organize the marine resistance -Trained the Ionians without rest -They started to get tired of Dionysius’ training they refused -Ships = triremes -Persians attacked, the Samians deserted, the Greek line broke up -Persians burned Miletus + temples -Devasted the other Ionian cities except Island Samos -Darius listened to Ionian grievances -Replaced hated tyrants with democracies -Courts to suppress lawlessness -Land survey -Ionian cities never recovered -A Persian general, Harpagus, captured Histiaeus -He + Artaphernes, governor of Sardis arrested him, took him to Sardis and cut off his head, sent it to Darius -Darius got angry ~ Histiaeus was not brought alive -Gave the head a proper burial The Battle of Marathon (490 b.c) -Athenians renounced their submit to Ahuramazda + Persia -Darius sent his son-in-law Mardonius with a fleet -He waited to punish Athens and Eretria for supporting the revolt -Everyone surrendered in Mardonis’ path -A storm lost 300 ships with 20,000 men -Many poleis submitted, some preferred tyrants under Persia vs. democracy -Athenians executed Darius’ heralds and Spartans pushed them in wells -Aegina, Athens traditional enemy, went to war with Athens -Darius planned to reinstate Hippias as ruler of Athens -Persians attacked Eretria; Athenians came to help but were advised return by Aeschines -Euphorbusm son of Alcimachus + Philagrus son of Cyneas betrayed the city to Persians -Athens was next -Persians landed on Marathon -Athenians ran their city and army democratically -Miltiades took charge -Told them to set for Marathon -Sent a runner to Sparta for help -Spartans could not take the field until full moon so they waited -Hippias, son of Pisistratus guided the Persians -the runner who went to the city of Plataea was successful ~ they joined the Athenians -Athenians hoped Spartans join them -The War archon voted to fight -The Spartans came and left having seen that the Athenians destroyed Persian army The Great War (480-479 b.c) -Darius now very angry b/c of Marathon loss went to invade all of Greece -Egypt rebelled, Darius died, Babylon rose up -Darius’s son Xerxes decided to invade -Mardonis urged him to renew the attack Storm Clouds in the West st -Diodorus of Sicily ~ historian living in 1 century -says that the Carthaginians teamed up with Xerxes -Carthaginians defeat Greek pirates -Spartan adventurer tries to establish Greek colony near Mota -Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela Empire on eastern Sicily -Dionysis of Phocaea emigrates to Sicily and becomes pirate leader -Gelon succeeds Hippocrates as tyrant of Gela -Gelon moves pipilations from Camarina, Gela, Megara Hyblaea, and Sicilan Euboea to Syracuse -Theron, tyrant of Akragas overthrowns Terillus, tyrant of Himera -Embassy from Aegean Gree
More Less

Related notes for CLAB05H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.