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CLAB05 week 8.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Janet Mowat

CLAB05 Exam Review Week 8- Peloponnesian War – Pericles, Conon, Alcibiades PW - destroyed hundreds of thousands of lives - persian rentereted Aegean – much of sicily ended up paying tibute to carthage while syracuse chafed under the strongest tyrant greed ever saw - Thucydiddes- Athenians wrote about PW and Athenians – revised after the war in 404bc- Athenians and spartas oppsed the war from the beginning - 431 bc athens dominates sea, Sparta the land - PW had three phases, Arcidamian War had three first part from 431-421 bc – Spartan king who invaded attica each summer, peace of nicias- begins with treaty negotiioan by the athenian aristocratic leader nicias and ends with defence at syrause- third phase is the ionian war – most action took place off the Ionian coast- 412-404 bc= after athens defence in 404 bc, civil war broke out in athens- bringing its traun the excution in 409bc – cathage invaded an exhausted sicily- triggering wars that raged through out the next centry Storm Clouds  Athens’ Long Walls Athens' long walls which pisses off the Spartans Means they are immune to siege from land Helot Revolt (464-2) Earthquake which encouraged Helots to revolt  Athenians sent help, Sparta says no thanks, sends Athenians back which is a major insult  Helot says that they would stop the revolt if they can be free  Athens settles them near Corinth which causes tension (ally of Sparta)  First Peloponnesian War (460-446) “First Peloponnesian War” (460-446)  Was a cold war mostly  Resulted in a 30 year peace in 445 which was instigated by Pericles  Lucky for the Athens since their power on mainland Greece was weak Thirty Years’ Peace (445)  The Thirty Years' Peace was a treaty, signed between the ancient Greek city-states Athens and Sparta, in the year 446/445 BC. The treaty brought an end to the conflict commonly known as the First Peloponnesian War, which had been raging since c.460 BC.  The purpose of the treaty was to prevent another outbreak of war  The Thirty Years' Peace, however, only lasted 13 years. It ended when the Spartans had declared war on the Athenian  Trouble in Paradise  Corcyra vs Corinth - 443  Corinth = Sparta league. Has a colony called Corcyra and Corcyra has their own colony called Epidamnus. Volatile time for government, democracy is spreading!  Epidamnus has a democratic uprising, Epidamnus goes to Persyra for help and gets denied, then asked Corinth and they say yes  Corcyra and Athens on one side, and Corinth and Epidemes at another end  First strike against peace as Athens didn't wait to for things to get super bad to enter the fight Potidaea vs Athens - 432  Potidaea was a part of the Delian league and revolt  Corinth secretly sends help to Potidaeans  Athens sends navy to stop the revolt and in the process of doing so, kills Corinthians  Sanctions against Megara - 432  Athens poses sanctions against Megara (they were allied with Athens before)  Megara is now a part of Sparta's league  Athens tells their subjects not to trade with Megara  Megara is screwed as they have a big population and need trade to survive  Sparta's Ultimatum  Spartan king sends ultimatum with 3 terms  "Free the Greeks"  Dissolve the empire, give autonomy to subject states  Expel the Alcmaeonids  Targeting Pericles  Repeal Megarian sanctions Part I - Archidamian War 431-421 Pericles led Athens to war- but he had to persude the assembly- this war broke out because Sparta saw that athens left alone would keep centralizaing power until she became irrestibly strong For Athens winning simply meant avoiding defeat – which would lead them to continue centralizaing and could mean ruin for Sparta Pericles- two part plan – stay behind walls keep the subject cities paying for the fleet, and use the fleet to protext the grain supply – second harass the enemys coasts, seize offshore islands as bases, and keep up the military pressure- Persian wars consisted of a few key battles – perciles though- Sparta will tire/back off and Athens could resume expansion 431 bc- summer first act of agresson- Spartans invaded attica , burned and plundered then halted outside the citys walls- spartas stratedy was to provoke Athens into pitched battle Athenians stayed behind the walls and- and long walls and secure their acces to the sea- Spartans burned and plundered the countryside 430bc – 429 – Sparta returned every year – grain ships kept coming from the black seas, landing in Piraeus and supplies transported to the city through long walls – Sparta could not defeat Athens Athenisn suppressed ader- Spartans burn crop and farmhouses  27 years long  Traditionally, Peloponnesian war is separated into 3 parts  Its called that because of the Spartan King Archidamus  War is declared, Athenian is unsure how to go about this war  Athens has greater navy power, while Sparta has greater ground power Pericles' Strategy  Wait it out and wear them out bit by bit  They call in all the farmers and rural Athenians inside the wall of Athens  When Sparta invades Attica, Athenians pull everyone inside the walls and Sparta destroy all the crops, take things from homes, lay waste to Attica  They do this every summer from 431 to 435  As long as Athens has free access to the sea, Athens has resources to food and other goods  Another strategy is to use their navy to hurt the Spartans whenever they would. The hope is that Sparta would eventually leave  Sparta could never break the wall because it was so heavily fortified Plague (430-426)- Long walls created unsanitary enviroments – the heat of summer- 1 in four atheniasn died – they turned on pericles morale sank – dismissed pericles and funed him- he died of plague in 429 bc -  Things often go bad when you cram so many people in a city that's not designed to support that many people, disease runs ramped  They had no sewer system, people were cramped up and sanitation was horrible  This plague killed 30,000 people  Thucydides is the source for this  Modern day typhoid disease  Kills you in 7 days, starts with your head, you burn up in fever, horrible things happen to your bowels  Thucydides said that people would have fever that was so bad that they'd throw themselves in water tanks thus dirtying everyone's water  Horrible sanitary management  Athenians thought the plague was sent from Apollo to help the Spartans  In 429 Pericles dies of the Plague, created power vacuum in Athens, variety of figures emerged to fill the vacuum. These were called demagogues (leaders of the people) they are people who are especially good speakers, knows how to get the Athenian people on their side  Explored new straigies – Athens important ally mytilene (main city on the island Lesbos) revolted in 427 bc - Sparta offered support but was twoo afraid of Athens- Demosthenes- Athenian general- use these new allies to force boetia and then Corinth onto Athens side and then defeat Sparta- his plan seemed to be working until 424 bc – when the boetians shattered Athens new alliance / atheni- sn looked west to sicily – major poer in 430 bc and in 427 sicilian war broke out – dorian cities sides with Syracuse against Ionian cities – 424 bc athens had 60 ships and 10000 men in sicily – Sicilian cities a general peace and sent athensian away (thuydiddes) Mytilenean Debate (427)  Cleon ( a popular speaker in Athens demagogue persudaded tha assembly trucecertain that once asthen held ths Spartans hostage- be on much better terms) vs. Diodotus  Thucydides and Democracy  Mytilenean revolt as a former Athenian subject state  Sparta does not show up, knows not to battle Athens at sea  Athens shows up and obviously defeats them  Back at Athens they had a debate as to what to do with the revolting Mytileneans  Cleon says to make an example of these people, kill the men, enslave women and children which Athenians agree with, so they send a ship out right away to carry out the horrible deed.  Athenians sleep on it, in the morning they go OH GOSH WHAT HAVE WE DONE?!  They call an emergency meeting Diodotus says we've done a horrible thing we need to stop this  Cleon says no let the ship continue!  Athenians vote to send a second ship to overtake the first ship to tell them to stop!  Second ship got there in the nick of time as the first ship just announced to kill all the men PHEW! Dodged that bullet!  Thucydides uses this to criticise radical democracy, that people are too easily persuade and they're uneducated and will listen to anyone as long as they are charismatic and a good speaker Pylos (bay) Coast of Peloponnesus in 425bc Demosthenes noticed the northern headland pylos – small force- fortified would wall of drift wood Spartans terrified his would up rose helos- Spartans sailed their own fleet into the bay of navarino- outlet blocked the long island spacteruas landed 420 hoplites- hoping to barriace the channels – so Athenian ships could not sail to the bay – Spartans sailed up to Athenians fort – tried to force a landing Brasidas Spartan general cimanded the shf- athenains fighting on Spartan land Athenian fleet sailed father north after leaving Demosthenes on the head land returned , Spartans had not gotten around to barricading th bay- Athenian ships sailed in and destroyed Spartan ships- trapped 420 hoplites – 420 made 10% of the spacteria – Sparta wanted truce- Cleon ( a popular speaker in Athens demagogue persudaded the assembly truce certain that once athens held ths Spartans hostage- be on much better terms)  according to the Greek historian Thucydides in his History of the Peloponnesian War, the area was "together with most of the country round, unpopulated" (iv, 3). In 425 BC the Athenian politician Cleon sent an expedition to Pylos where the Athenians fortified the rocky promontory now known as Koryphasion or Old Pylos at the northern edge of the bay, and after a conflict with Spartan ships in the Battle of Pylos, seized and occupied the bay. A little later the Athenians captured a number of Spartan troops besieged on the adjacent island of Sphacteria (see Battle of Sphacteria). Spartan anxiety over the return of the prisoners, who were taken to Athens as hostages, contributed to their acceptance of the Peace of Nicias in 421 Bc Battle of Sphacteria (425)  Demosthenes vs Brasidas  This is a strategic point as the Bay near Sphacteria is very important to Sparta  Demosthenes has an idea, builds wall and fort at the one entrance of the Bay  Brasidas the Spartan general, drops of 400 Hoplite warriors to the island of Sphacteria, attack the Athenians at the wall  Just in the nick of time, Athenian fleet returns, they get rid of the Spartan fleet, 400 hoplite stranded at the island and are surrounded  Back at Athens another debate is raging  Cleon vs. Nicias ( son of niceratus)  Cleon is pissed because Athenian navy is slacking, should have killed the Spartans already  Cleon directs anger at Nicias and says you generals suck!  Nicias calls Cleons bluff and says okay you go do something then!  Nicias persuade the assembly to give Cleon some ship to go down even though Cleon didn't really want to go  With luck, the island the hoplites are on has a fire and most of these hoplites die, and the rest are stranded at the end of a cliff- a fire broke on on spacteria and drove the Spartans to the cliffs cut from water and food- 120 surviving spartiates- surrendered t the demagogue cleon – no Spartan ever surrenderd before  For the first time ever, Spartan Hoplites surrender (they're suppose to die fighting) and are now prisoners of Athens  Bad for Sparta  120 Spartiate hostages Amphipolis Igenious brasidas 424bc attached demosthes fortifications at pylos had an idea – some of Athens riches subjects where on mainland Greece and not protected by the sea- he proposed that Athens should attach the,- ephors refused to tbrasidas take any spartiantes north – however he set off with just 700 helots and 1000 mercenaries Athens sent Thucydides with ships and men  Brasidas vs. Thucydides (424)  Sparta's Brasidas goes to Amphipolis and is very generous to give them a way out as long as they go to Sparta's side- taken eiod too  They do since Thucydides (sent by Athens) arrives at Amphipolis too late  Thucydides is exiled for 20 years because of this- used the time to write history fall of amphiplois shocked the Athenians – sent cleon with a large foruce to regain it Brasidas vs Cleon (422)  Cleon goes to Amphipolis to take the city back  Brasidas and Cleon are both killed in the battle (Aristophanes) comedy  Both cities are anxious about their respective losses of great leaders so they sign a peace treaty/ Athens and Sparta exhausted  Island of mytilene near ionian coast revolted against Athens in 427bc - Athenians quickly crushed
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