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Lecture 4

CLAB06H3 Roman History Week 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies

Week 4 Workshop next week: IC 306 Group 1: 11am-12pm > CLAB Group 2: HISB > 12-1pm Italy and the Empire in the 3rd - 2nd century BC Rome's Italian Expansion Rome's Mediterranean Expansion; Punic Wars, Roman Involvement in the East Med. The Consequences; Institutions and Territorial Management; Society & Economy Rome's Italian Expansion 290-260 BC: Northern & Central & Southern Italy Tarentum (Greek City in Italy) dominant power in the region; didn't like seeing Rome getting involved in political life with other regions Tarentum sought help from a protector! Wars against Pyrrhus (281-272 BC) 3 battles: Rome vs Pyrrhus & allied cities Upcoming= Rome's victory (275) 273-272: Capture of Tarentum "Pyrrhic victory"; "won but not glamorously" first two battles: pyrrhic victory Rome captured the city and sold the population into slavery Pyrrhus survived the wars but died later in a street fight Consequences? many cities submitted to Rome (Tarentum) creation of several new colonies more intact between the Romans and the Greek world/culture first contacts with Carthaginians Growth of Rome = water supply issues: two new aqueducts! 312: "Aqua Appia" 272: "Anio Vetus" Gowth of Roman Territory: more roads! "Via Appia" - one of the most famous roads; links Italy and Greece; bordered by funerary monuments and statues remember: always a bias, because our sources of the Romans are FROM the Romans Settlements: 3 Types different cities will get different statuses; how you relate to Rome all their inhabitants pay no taxes or tribute to Rome, however they have duties; male citizens are expected to provide soldiers in time of war; submitted to Rome A. "Municipia" - "Municipia"; "Municipia sina suffragio" incorporated into the Roman state; Roman territory; Roman citizens local institutions maintained no independents foreign or military policy Eg. Etruscan city of Veii Municipia sina suffragio: Farther away from Rome citizens but they do not have the right to vote: too far local institutions maintained no independent foreign or military policy eg. Capua B. Allies (Socii) submitted cities some independence not incorporated into the Roman State Socii nominis Latini ("allies of Latin name") right of intermarriage (into the Roman's) (Roman's coulnt marry non-Roman's) right of ownership of land right of migration Eg. Tarentum (272 BC) C. Colonies cities-states under Rome's sole control strategic locations 2 types: Roman colonies: Roman citizens (tribes) Latin colonies: Latin status Eg. Corbdoba, Spain (169 BC) How to create a colony: 3 men (triumviri) = leaders a site (new or not) fortified settlement allocated plots (cadastres) make a city core and surround it with plots of land for the colonists religious inaugurating rites colonists and local institutions 2. 2 Main Developments the Punic Wars Involvement in the Eastern Med The Punic Wars (264-146 BC) 3 wars against Carthage 264-241 BC: 1st Punic War Straights of Messena; important because it was a convenient passage between the coast of Italy and further East 289 Bc, death of Agathocles of Syracuse around 270: Mamertines (Campanian mercenaries) vs Syracuse Army (Hiero) Mamertines are trying to take control of the Straights; Mamertines sought help from Carthage; they together defeated Hiero Mamertines sought help from Rome to get rid of the Carthaginians because they were sticking around too much Rome accepted; Carthigian garrison expelled, Romans enter Syracuse Carthage + Hiero retaliate 263: more intensive warfare 262: Sack of Agrigentum by the Romans; relative status quo; Hamilar Barca named commander in Sicily Rome: Builds a competitive fleet; massive operation of copying the Carthaginian's fleet; used planks to get soldiers from one boat to the other and have land battles on boats! eventually became better than them! 256: Roman troops in North Africa (core of Carthage's power); capture of Tunis; 1 Roman consul captured (Regulus); not entirely successfull 241: Peace Treaty (negotiated by Hamilcar) Aftermaths: Carthaginians leave Sicily Large indemnity paid to Rome ( heavy) Carthage ($ problems) > Mercenaries' revolts in North Africa + Sardinia > Roman intervention > Carthage abandons Sardinia 218-201 BC: 2nd Punic War pretext: Spain; under authority of Carthaginians; good place to control; lots of mining and minerals there; natural gas; oil; lots of gold & silver; and timber forests; good to build boats for your fleet! Ebro river; Carthaginians signed the treaty and said they wouldn'
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