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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - CLAB06H3.docx

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Classical Studies
Katherine Blouin

Lecture 10 CLAB06H3 Tuesday, March 12, 2013 The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians (14-96 AD) From Octavian to August (30BC-14AD) A) Octavian and the Republic - Basis of Octavian’s strategy to exert + keep power = Use of traditional Republican Institutions o X dynastic or divinely-based power o X military based power  From republic to Principate The First Years - 30; Still rules as triumvir - 31-23: Consul every year - 28: Agrippa and him coequal consuls - Jan. 27: Hands back all his authority to the Roman people but… The First Settlement (27 BC) - Octavian: o Consul of Spain, Gaul, Cilicia, Cyrus, Syria, Egypt for 10 years  Legati  Most strategic and wealthy provinces/cities o Named Augustus, “revered”  Restoration of the Republic + Octavian-Augustus turns away from his violent past The Second Settlement (23 BC) - Augustus resigns consulship but - Keeps o Provinces o Imperium - Gains o Imperium maius o Tribunicia potestas Other “Honors” - 19: Consul insigna - 12: Pontifex maximus - 2: Pater patriae How did Augustus retain effective power? - Through his influence Senate: More exclusive - From 1,000 to 600 members (Sulla) - Entry condition: Quaestor New offices - 5 BC: Consulship = 6 months = Suffect consuls - 2 BC: Praetorian cohorts (supervised by 2 equestrian prefects) - 6 AD: Vigiles (3,500, freedman status) - 7-8 AD: Annona prefecture (5-6 AD = famines) - 13 AD: Urban cohorts B) Military Reforms - Size (Expenses) o At least 300,000 men discharged o Land and $ for veterans - Control + allegiance o Almost all in imperial provinces o Rise of centurions’ pay o Oath in the name of Augustus + his family C) Provincial + Foreign Policy - Doubled Empire’s size: o Egypt o Whole Iberian peninsula o Up to the Rhine (Raetia, Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Moesia) o All the Alps o Galatia o Judaea - Diplomatic relationships with Portia Augustean Empire - Reached natural boundaries Augustean Empire - 2 types of provinces o Senatorial o Imperial Senatorial provinces - Stable ones - Not a lot of soldiers - Governed by proconsuls o Former consuls or praetors  Ex: Africa, Bithynia and Pontus, Macedonia  Governed by personal legati of the emperor - 6 AD: Aerarium militare = fund for veterans o Tax on inheritance + sales - 13 AD: Professionalization of the army o Volunteer citizens o Military service = 20 years and + o Bounty: $, land C) Urbanism – 3 new aqueducts – Senate house – New forum + temple to Mars Avenger – Extensive development of the Campus Martius – Augustus’ mausoleum + Ara pacis Which one of the following was not an aim of Augustus’ urban projects? - To glorify the Senate o Only one ruler D) Literature - Literary boom: o Patronage o Biased o Model = Greece E) Culture - Augustus’ Res gestae o For admiration o Self-representation = restraint, responsibility, honor, pacifier The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians (14-96 AD) - 3 main groups: o Julio-Claudians (27 BC-68 AD) o Military (68-69 AD) o Flavians (69-96 AD) A) The Ideology of Power “Beneficial Ideology” What does it mean? Conscious magnanimity: - Legislations to the disadvantaged - Public buildings and spaces - Cheap food (annona, alimenta) - Lavish entertainment - Fiscal privileges to certain communities - Encouragement of provincial equites + senators o The emperor gives thus he is good panem et circenses (Juvenal 10.80) The Exercise of Power - Varied greatly from an emperor to another - Literary sources = partial and biased o Inscriptions + papyri = “objective” point of view - Important elements: o Despotic and erratic emperors were eliminated (Caligula, Nero, Domitian) - Institutionalization of the Principate o 69-70 AD: Lex de imperio Vespasiani (powers + prerogatives of the Princeps) o Title Imperator - 1 Italian (non Roman) emperors: Flavians B) The Imperial Culture - Religious + societal phenomenon - Unifying
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