Lecture 09 - CLAB06H3.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Classical Studies
Katherine Blouin

Lecture 09 CLAB06H3 March 5, 2013 From Caesar to Augustus (53 BC – 14 AD) Outline 1. From the death of Crassus to the death of Caesar (53-44BC) 2. The Year after Caesar’s Death (44-43 BC) 3. The Second Triumvirate and its Aftermaths (43-30 BC) 4. Octavian-Augustus’ Reign (30 BC – 14 AD) From the death of Crassus to the death of Caesar (53-44BC) - Parthians were people living in regions I.e. Iraq 52 BC Pompey sole consuls Law: - 5 years between consulship/praetorship and governorship of a province Caesar after Gaul - 50: o Cesar = High risks of prosecutions  Wants to switch directly from governorship to consulship o Pompey avoids the matter, then disagrees - 50-49: More search for compromises o Senate (Cato): senatus consultum ultimum o Tribunes (Cassius + Mark Anthony) have to flee from Rome - Jan. 49: Cesar crosses the Rubicon 47-45: War against the Pompeians - 46: Dictator for 10 years + - 4 triumphs (Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, Africa) Cesar’s dictatorship (49-44) - 45: Back in Rome (triumph) - 44: Perpetual dictatorship o Command against Parthia The end - Feb 14, 44: Perpetual dictator - Feb 15, 44: Refuses the diadem - March 15, 44: Last meeting of the senate before Caesar’s departure for Syria o Stabbed by a group of conspirators Julius Cesar - Has set up the foundations of the imperial regime  Victory of the populares over the Optimates  Monarchy without the name Cesar and himself - Royal attire (purple) - Gold crown - His image on coins - Fidelity oath swore by his name - His statue with those of Rome’s 7 kings Cesar’s Socio-Economic Reforms - Debts - More land for veterans (oversea) o Carthage + Corinth = colonies - Rise of status for several communities (Spain, Cisalpine) - Asia: Taxes levied by communities - Calendar Cesar and Rome - Limitation of annona distributions - Public works o Public buildings  Forum Julium, Saepta Julia  New senate o New harbor + canal project - Aim: Glorify Rome + himself + make it a center of culture and education Political measures - Clementia against all his enemies - Senate expanded (900) + diversified o Low rank men o Provincials (Spain, Gaul) - NB quaestors (40) + praetors (16) doubled o Named by Caesar The Year after Caesar’s Death (44-43 BC) - Mar. 14: Caesar’s murder Caesar’s Will - To the Roman people: o Extensive property o 300 sesterces per individual - To Gaius Octavius (Octavian): o Sole heir o Gaius Julius Caesar Octavians - Antony vs. Octavian Cesar’s public funerals  Massive outcry against the assassins  Mid-April: Brutus and Cassius away from Rome August: Governors of create + Cyrene Octavian - Born Sept. 63 BC - Son of Caesar’s niece Atia + Gaius Octavius (novus homo) - 45: With Cesar in Spain - 44: Studies in Apollonia (Illyricum) o Back to Rome Mark Anthony - Born 83 BC son of M. Antonius (equites) - 57-54: Cavalry commander in Palestine + Egypt - 53-50: With Cesar in Gaul Lepidus - 49: Quaestor, supports Cesar - 46: Consul - 46-44: Magister equitum - 44: Supports Antony o Pontifex Maximus 44-43 BC - Spring 44: Lepidus in Gaul and Nearer Spain o Vs. Sextus Pompey - Nov. 44: Antony towards Cisalpine Gaul o Besieges M
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