Week 5

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Classical Studies
Katherine Blouin

12022011 21:47:00 WEEK 5: Chapter 6-7 pages 166-204 Chapter 6: Italy Threatened, Enfranchised, Divided War with Jugurtha (112-105) After the death of Gaius Gracchus, 2 developments emerged that were both external and took Rome by surprise st 1 was a Numidian named Jugurtha, who was adopted by king Micipsa (the son and successor to Rome longstanding ally Masinissa). o Jugurtha dad was brother of Micipsa but died prematurely o Micipsa had his own 2 younger sons (Hiempsal and Adherbal) o On Micipsa death 118 kingdom left jointly to all three dem o Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed and Adherbal driven out of Numidia Adherbal begged help from Rome; they dispatched Lucius Opimius brutal consul of 121; he divided kingdom gave the west to Jugurtha and the more developed east to Adherbal Rome interfered in foreign affairs here cuz Numidia old ally of rome now had common border with Africa so Rome wanted stable neighbor there Jugurtha invaded Adherbal territory and by 112 had him trapped in his capital Cirta; Adherbal surrendered and was excuted Numidia and Rome now in war; Rome le by commander Quintus Caecilius Metellus succeeded by Gaius Marius; Mariuiss quaestor, Lucius Cornelius Sulla persuaded Jugurthas ally King Bocchus of Mauretania to betray him to the romans. Jugurtha is excuted, Bocchus given part of Numidia and a bro of jugurtha ruler of the east Italy threatened from the North (113-101) nd development 2 was a migration south by groups of germans (the Cimbri and the Teutones) o by 113 they had drifted to eastern Alps where they defeated Roman consul and his army who were sent to watch them. www.notesolution.com o Then entered Rhone river valley posing threat to Rome province of Transalpine Gaul (formed in 121) defeated another consul and his army in 109 o Roman defeats in 107 and most serious in 105 in Arausio where romans defeated due to refusal of Quintus Servilius Caepio (consul in 106) to cooperate with his supo italyerior, novus homo consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus. o Voters wanted to prevent repeats of the standoff bw Caepio and Mallius at Arausio so Marius elected as consul; held this position for 5yrs in a row and 6 in total o German tribes moved north instead of south toward italy; gave Marius time to restore Romans army; when tribes turned south Marius defeated the Teutones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 and the Cimbri at Vercellae in northern Italy in 103 o Marius became Romes savior, offered 2 triumphs took only 1 Marius Career in Roman Politics Marius was born 157 near Arpinum 60miles SE of Rome; family has equestrian status but prominent only locally; somehow able to serve under Scipio Aemilianus at Numantia; distinguished himself o After military service attempted to stand for office at Rome wbacking of leading noble family the Metelli; gained quaestorship in late 120s followed by the tribunate in 119; failed to become aedile and barely just secured praetor in 115 o Benefited $$$ from governship in Spain and married Julia-whose family was patrician the Julii Caesares, aunt to Julius Caesar In Spain showed talent for guerilla warfare; Quintus Mettelus made him second-in-command when he fought Jugurtha in 109 o Metellus denied Marius to go to Rome to stand for consulship of 107; wanted 50yr old Marius to wait till his own 21yr son was ready to be a candidate too o Marius returned to Rome ran for office anyway; when senate tried to reappoint Metellus as commander in Numidia the Plebeian assembly overruled and appointed Marius www.notesolution.com
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