In Class Lecture Notes

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L03
- number of spheres with one major energy (sunlight), outputs Æ heat
- system: anything you can put boundaries on, inputs: anything you put in, outputs:
anything that comes out
- open system - open to energy & matter
- closed system - only open to energy
- earth, closed system - inputs of energy, material continuously recycling, outputs into
space Æ engulfing a lot of systems that interact with each other
- feedback - whatever is outputted has an affect on inputs (matter)
- positive feedback loops Æ disastrous - continuously declining/degrading (river valley
with erosion, snow pack with solar radiation)
- threshold - a system may just snap
Atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere (frozen portion),
anthrosphere
Major earth systems: rock cycle, ecosystems, hydrologic cycle, global energy balance,
biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, mercury, etc)
Rock cycle
- Rocks liquefy Æ solidifies Æ igneous rock (granite)
- Weathering - physical breakdown of the rock
- Lithification - forming another rock from cements
- Igneous or sedimentary rock Æ pressured Æ crystals break apart without physically
breaking Æ metamorphic (gneiss)
Æ can change any type of these rocks into another
Things, biotic and abiotic; energy flows; matter cycles, working together = ecosystem
[SELF SUFFICIENT]
Open system (main input: solar radiation) - some matter is recycled but some are released
- die Æ detritus (dirt and greenhouse gases)
Gross primary production: overall conversation of solar energy into chemical energy
by autotrophs
- respiration: metabolism
Net primary productivity (NPP): energy remaining after respiration, that goes toward
accumulating biomass
Net ecosystem productivity (NEP): NPP minus heterotrophic respiration and herbivory
Strip across Canada - carbon sink, important in global warming
Photosynthesis:
Factors affecting NEP
1. Nutrients
- macronutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus)
- nitrogen is a limiting factor in marine systems - phosphorus in freshwater systems
2. Oxygen
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Document Summary

Number of spheres with one major energy (sunlight), outputs heat. System: anything you can put boundaries on, inputs: anything you put in, outputs: anything that comes out. Open system - open to energy & matter. Closed system - only open to energy. Earth, closed system - inputs of energy, material continuously recycling, outputs into space engulfing a lot of systems that interact with each other. Feedback - whatever is outputted has an affect on inputs (matter) Positive feedback loops disastrous - continuously declining/degrading (river valley with erosion, snow pack with solar radiation) Threshold - a system may just snap. Atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere (frozen portion), anthrosphere. Major earth systems: rock cycle, ecosystems, hydrologic cycle, global energy balance, biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, mercury, etc) Rocks liquefy solidifies igneous rock (granite) Weathering - physical breakdown of the rock. Lithification - forming another rock from cements.

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