Class Notes (1,200,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
EESA01H3 (100)

In Class Lecture Notes

Environmental Science
Course Code
Carl Mitchell

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
- number of spheres with one major energy (sunlight), outputs Æ heat
- system: anything you can put boundaries on, inputs: anything you put in, outputs:
anything that comes out
- open system - open to energy & matter
- closed system - only open to energy
- earth, closed system - inputs of energy, material continuously recycling, outputs into
space Æ engulfing a lot of systems that interact with each other
- feedback - whatever is outputted has an affect on inputs (matter)
- positive feedback loops Æ disastrous - continuously declining/degrading (river valley
with erosion, snow pack with solar radiation)
- threshold - a system may just snap
Atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere (frozen portion),
Major earth systems: rock cycle, ecosystems, hydrologic cycle, global energy balance,
biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, mercury, etc)
Rock cycle
- Rocks liquefy Æ solidifies Æ igneous rock (granite)
- Weathering - physical breakdown of the rock
- Lithification - forming another rock from cements
- Igneous or sedimentary rock Æ pressured Æ crystals break apart without physically
breaking Æ metamorphic (gneiss)
Æ can change any type of these rocks into another
Things, biotic and abiotic; energy flows; matter cycles, working together = ecosystem
Open system (main input: solar radiation) - some matter is recycled but some are released
- die Æ detritus (dirt and greenhouse gases)
Gross primary production: overall conversation of solar energy into chemical energy
by autotrophs
- respiration: metabolism
Net primary productivity (NPP): energy remaining after respiration, that goes toward
accumulating biomass
Net ecosystem productivity (NEP): NPP minus heterotrophic respiration and herbivory
Strip across Canada - carbon sink, important in global warming
Factors affecting NEP
1. Nutrients
- macronutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus)
- nitrogen is a limiting factor in marine systems - phosphorus in freshwater systems
2. Oxygen
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version