In Class Lecture Notes

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L04
Eutrophication: the process of nutrient over-enrichment, blooms of algae (consuming
bacteria and .’. needs lots of oxygen - leaving none for fish), increased population of
organic matter, and ecosystem degradation
Æ Red Tide
- harmful (toxic) algae phytoplankton
- micro algae (din flagellates and diatoms) can release toxic substances
- Harmful algae bloom (HAB)
- natural, but can be triggered by nutrient pollution
- leads to fish/shellfish poisoning or toxin accumulation - passed to humans
Phosphorus cycle
- in lithosphere - mined and brought out to atmosphere
- key component of cell membranes, DNA, ATP (energy)
- limiting nutrient for autotroph growth
- restricted to lithosphere/hydrosphere
- chemical cycling driven by: solubilization, precipitation, assimilation, decomposition
Æ human alteration
- mining of phosphorus-bearing rocks for fertilizer production
- wastewater, sewage discharge
- eutrophication via over-fertilization (mainly freshwater)
- use of phosphate detergents
-- mercury cycle operates interpersonally - remove mercury from lithosphere Æ burned
along with fossil fuels Æ put it in atmosphere
- similar to water (liquid, solid - in rocks, fossil fuels, gas - breathing mercury vapour is
extremely dangerous)
- can remain in atmosphere for more than a year
- biggest exposure to the environment Æ diet
Basics of energy and climate
- warm Æ more energy than cold substance
- warm Æ becomes cooler, energy is leaving
- steady-state Earth - incoming = outgoing
Æ warm up or cool down if not steady
- Earths climate is all about energy fluxes and the balance between incoming/outgoing
energy
- energy cannot be created or destroyed - simply transferred
- closed to matter, open to energy
- INcoming SOLar radIATION Æ insolation (shortwave radiation)
Æ ultraviolet light (UV), visible light, near-infrared wavelengths
- drives most processes on Earth
- insolation & Earths tilt and rotation produce daily/seasonal/annual patterns of day
length/climate
- tilted at 23.5 degrees
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Document Summary

Eutrophication: the process of nutrient over-enrichment, blooms of algae (consuming bacteria and . ". needs lots of oxygen - leaving none for fish), increased population of organic matter, and ecosystem degradation. Micro algae (din flagellates and diatoms) can release toxic substances. Natural, but can be triggered by nutrient pollution. Leads to fish/shellfish poisoning or toxin accumulation - passed to humans. In lithosphere - mined and brought out to atmosphere. Key component of cell membranes, dna, atp (energy) Chemical cycling driven by: solubilization, precipitation, assimilation, decomposition. Mining of phosphorus-bearing rocks for fertilizer production. - mercury cycle operates interpersonally - remove mercury from lithosphere burned along with fossil fuels put it in atmosphere. Similar to water (liquid, solid - in rocks, fossil fuels, gas - breathing mercury vapour is extremely dangerous) Can remain in atmosphere for more than a year. Biggest exposure to the environment diet. Warm more energy than cold substance. Warm becomes cooler, energy is leaving.

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