EESA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Asthenosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere

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Published on 20 Sep 2017
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What is "Matter"
Any material in universe with mass and occupies space; solid,
liquid, or gas
Law of Conservation of Matter: matter may be transformed from
one type into another, but cannot be created or destroyed
Composition of Matter
Atom is the core: protons, electrons, neutrons
Element: consist of the same atoms
Ex. Mercury, potassium, oxygen
Compound: 2 or more different elements
Ex. Water: 1 oxygen 2 hydrogen
Earths Most Abundant Chemical Elements, by Mass
Oxygen heaviest in Earth's crust, oceans, and organisms
Isotopes and Ions
Atoms defined by number of protons: Atomic Number
• Isotope: atoms with same # of protons but different # of neutrons
Neutrons give different mass, making atoms behave a bit differently
• Radioactive vs. stable isotopes
•Anions vs. cations
Atoms become ions when they gain or lose electrons
Anion: when atom gains electron, becoming negatively
charged
Cation: when atom loses electron, becoming positively
charged
The Wonderful Water Molecule
Polar molecule: net negative charge at one end and net positive
charge at the other
Leads to hydrogen bonding
Very strong cohesion : ability to for molecules to hold onto one
another
!important for solute transport in plants
Very high heat capacity: water holds onto heat over long periods
of time
helps stabilize our climate
Ice is less dense than liquid water since ice floats
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"Universal solvent" -> bonds well with other polar molecules
Organic and Inorganic Compounds are Essential to Life
•Organic Compound: carbon atoms and usually hydrogen atoms
joined by covalent bonds(atoms share electrons)
Often bonded with nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and phosphorus
Most biological matter composed of organic compounds called
Hydrocarbons
•Inorganic Compound: lack any carbon-carbon bonds, but still
essential to life
Ex. Water
Energy
Definition: capacity to change position, physical composition, or
temperature of matter
2 Types of Energy
Potential: energy related to position
Chemical energy, nuclear binding energy, and stored
mechanical energy
Kinetic: energy related to motion
Thermal energy and light energy
Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Total energy in universe remains constant ("conserved"): energy
cannot be destroyed or created
Second Law of Thermodynamics
In any transfer of energy, nature/quality of energy will change from
more ordered state to less ordered state if nothing counteracts this
tendency: systems tend to move toward increasing
disorder(entropy)
Ex. Dead log decomposes in the forest - moves from
organized and complex molecules to simple, rudimentary
molecules
Every transfer of energy results in some energy lost; not
destroyed but less usable form
Inefficiency usually very large: 16% gasoline powers a car,
the rest is converted to heat
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Document Summary

Any material in universe with mass and occupies space; solid, liquid, or gas. Law of conservation of matter: matter may be transformed from one type into another, but cannot be created or destroyed. Atom is the core: protons, electrons, neutrons: element: consist of the same atoms. Mercury, potassium, oxygen: compound: 2 or more different elements. Earths most abundant chemical elements, by mass: oxygen heaviest in earth"s crust, oceans, and organisms. Atoms de ned by number of protons: atomic number. Isotope: atoms with same # of protons but different # of neutrons. Polar molecule: net negative charge at one end and net positive charge at the other. Very strong cohesion : ability to for molecules to hold onto one another: important for solute transport in plants. Very high heat capacity: water holds onto heat over long periods of time: helps stabilize our climate. Ice is less dense than liquid water since ice oats.

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