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Lecture 2

EESA01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Hydrogen Bond, Covalent Bond, Graduated Cylinder

Environmental Science
Course Code
Carl Mitchell

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EESA01 – Lecture 2 – Matter, Energy and the Systems
Anything in the universe that has mass and occupies space
It can be solid, liquid or gas
The Law of Conservation of Mass
oMass can be transformed from one type of substance into others but cannot be
created nor destroyed
oWhen something visually happens to something in the environment, the matter is
still there
oThe matter can be in different form or phase but its mass is still the same
oExample: What happens to all the carbons in the rainforest if we burn it to clear
the land for farming, the same amount of carbon will be released as gas into the
It can move around and can be stored in different things depending on what it is
The Composition of Matter
Different Types of Matter
oElement: same atoms
Example: Mercury
oCompound: 2 or more different atoms
Example: Water, which is composed of Hydrogen and Oxygen
oMixture of compounds and elements together
Example: Mercury dissolved in water
Different surfaces of the earth have different composition of matter
oThe earth’s crust: the most dominant by mass is oxygen followed by silicon
oOceans: the most dominant by mass is hydrogen bonded with oxygen
oOrganisms: Largely oxygen with a lot hydrogen and carbon
Isotopes and Ions
The atomic mass of an element
oAn average of the stable isotopes that exist for that element
oLargely comes from protons and neutrons
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oThese are atoms that have the same number of protons but different number
oThey have different mass but they are the same element.
oThe difference in the amount of mass is related to the number of neutrons that
are in the nucleus of the atom.
oThese isotopes of a particular element, more or less, behave the exact same
oThey have different bond strengths, kinetics and reaction time.
oThey also differ in how quickly they change phases and how quickly they get
diffused in the environment.
Stable Isotopes versus Radioactive Isotopes
oStable Isotopes
When the number of neutrons is almost equal to the number of protons
2:1 or 1.5:1 ratio of neutrons and protons
The isotope will not expel neutrons out of the nucleus
oRadioactive Isotopes
When there are too many or too few neutrons in relation to the number of
There is a tendency that the element may actually be changed into a
different element
oWhen atoms gain or lose electrons
oAnion – gain electrons (negative charge)
oCation – losing electrons (positive charge)
oThese charges help out in bonding
The Wonderful Water Molecule
Water – two hydrogens bonded to an oxygen
There are some extra electrons that floats around in the bond of hydrogen and oxygen,
thus causing the molecule to kink up (like two magnets you try pushing together)
Polar molecule – has negative and positive charge at each end of the molecule
Water is an amazing molecule that does a lot of things because of its polarity
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