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Lecture 9

EESA06 Lecture 9 Notes


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
EESA06H3
Professor
Nick Eyles
Lecture
9

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Lecture 9: The plate tectonic future of planet earth
1. ALPINEHIMALAYAN OROGENY: THE BUILDING OF THE
NEXT SUPERCONTINENT (PANGEA II)
Earth quake of Japan are part of the process of formation of new
supercontinent
Obduction: the process where we collide continents together, there are big
earthquakes but no subduction; destroying crust such as volcanoes
Slide 2: bottom, length of the lines represent velocity
2. OBDUCTION PROCESSES AS INDIAN SUB CONTINENT COLLIDES
WITH ASIA
Figure 2.29
Shows cross section
Indian sub continent and Himalayas
Before India collided there was an old ocean
Off Indonesia there is a subduction zone, its the product of India driven
north
India driven up as a wedge
The effects are Afghanistan, Pakistan are escaping and south east Asia is
also escaping from being driven up into Asia
This collision is huge in effects and mountains
India is pushing north
The Mediterranean is the ocean that lies between Africa and Europe, it is a
regnant ocean that is closing and will be gone as Africa moves up.
The mountain range is Swiss alps
Most common type of rocks are high grade, temperature metamorphic rocks
Granite is more acidic and has more silica
Rhyolite: produce highly explosive, local melting but not volcanoes in
obductions zones because no subduction
3. DESTRUCTION OF THE TETHYS OCEAN
SLIDE 6 top
India is separated from Antarctica by a mid ocean ridge; rifts
Slide 6 bottom: simerian orogeny, subduction on the right, subducting ocean
floor
Bottom figure: collision and shearing and thrusting on a big scale and
shortening of crust
Asthenosphere: in greek it means, weak sphere, softer
Mountains is going to go down to asthenosphere. It depresses northern India
we get broad fallen basins
we have big deltas, shallow marine areas which result oiling gas
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