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LECTURE 11: ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES
Exam will have diagrams. Focus on chapter 20, subduction and plate tectonics
•Landfills: waste dump, 1200
•Leachage: rain washed through waste, similar to contaminated ploons
•Radon gas: product of the breakdown of uranium, colourless and odourless may
cause lung cancer. This is bad because we have a lot of granite and shale with plenty
of uranium resulting in radon
•1998 is the warmest year, earth may be cooling
•Extraction of sand for oil and gas
SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCES
-UNDERSTANDING EARTH PROCESSES
-PROVIDING RESOURCE SECURITY such as water, iron, coal or oil
-HELPING SOCIETY ADJUST TO GLOBAL CHANGE, the way in which the planet is
-PROVIDING RELIABLE INFORMATION FOR PLANNING
AND ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING
-PROTECTION FROM NATURAL HAZARDS
-PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY
As urban areas get bigger, they are more susceptible to hazards. 81% people live in urban
areas in Australia.
Anthropocene; the epoch of man (our current epoch), the beginning of industrializations,
factories, movement of people to urban areas
Replacing permeable surface such as soil or grass with impermeable surface such as
concrete such as Scarborough bluffs
Ground water act as springs so if there are no rain for several days, rivers still flow.
Microburst at Steeles avenue, surface runoff due to change in water set
Middle of Canada, you get the hottest summers and coldest winters.
Permafrost: ground that remains frozen throughout the year. Active layer is the thawed
part during the summer. With climate change, the active layer is getting bigger, thawed
rocks results in subsides and the land goes down. Mackenzie valley, the mouth of the river,
Bofort sea, building pipelines for moving oil
“Hypsi” meaning the greatest warmth
Southern Alberta and Ontario, big demands for water Alberta uses it for crops, cleaning of